The National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG) was implemented by the National Council for Rejuvenation, Protection and Management of River Ganga also known as the National Ganga Council. This mission was established in 12th August 2011 under the Societies Registration Act,1860 as a registered society. The National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG) under National Ganga Council is supported by the State level Programme Management Groups (SPMGs) in the state of Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal. It is an initiative taken by the Government of India to address the pollution of river Ganga by providing financial and technical assistance.
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National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG) is an important topic for the IAS Exam. Candidates can also download the notes PDF at the end of this article.
Objectives of National Mission for Clean Ganga
The Government of India organised the National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG) at Delhi’s Vigyan Bhavan. NMCG focuses on pollution reduction interventions including interception, diversion and the treatment of wastewater that flows through the open drains. It aims to reduce pollution through bioremediation, apt in-situ treatment, pioneering technology, sewage treatment plants (STP) and effluent treatment plants (ETP).
Some of the major objectives of the Nation Mission for Clean Ganga are:
- The mission incorporates rehabilitating and boosting the existing STPs and instant short-term steps to curb pollution at exit points on the riverfront in order to check the inflow of sewage.
- To maintain the continuity of the water flow without changing the natural season variations.
- To restore and maintain the surface flow and groundwater.
- To regenerate and maintain the natural vegetation of the area.
- To conserve and regenerate the aquatic biodiversity as well as the riparian biodiversity of the river Ganga basin.
- To allow participation of the public in the process of protection, rejuvenation and management of the river.
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Initiatives towards Clean Ganga
A lot of initiatives were taken before the establishment of the Clean Ganga Mission that targeted towards the reduction of pollution and cleaning of the river Ganga. Some of the major initiatives taken by the Government of India before the implementation of this mission are discussed below:
- Ganga Action Plan: It was announced in 1985 by the Ministry of Environment & Forests. This was the first River Action Plan that was introduced for the improvement of water quality through interception, diversion and treatment of domestic sewage. The plan aimed in preventing the entry of toxic and industrial chemical wastes to the river.
- National River Conservation Plan: This conservation plan was developed as an extension for the Ganga Action Plan with an aim to cover all the major rivers of India.
- National River Ganga Basin Authority (NRGBA): Controlled by the Prime Minister of India, the National River Ganga Basin Authority was formed under Section-3 of the Environment Protection Act, 1986 by the Central Government in 2009. It declared the Ganga as the ‘National River’ of India.
- A Government clean-up campaign was started in 2010 to prevent the entry of untreated municipal sewage or industrial runoff into the river.
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What is Namami Gange?
The Namami Gange Yojana is implemented by the National Mission for Clean Ganga along with its State Programme Management Groups (SPMGs). Union Finance Minister, Arun Jaitley announced the implementation of Namami Gange on 10 July 2014.
This programme was established as a conservation mission with a budget of Rs. 20,000 crore. Namami Gange aims at reducing the pollution of the river Ganga along with the conservation and rejuvenation of the river banks.
It is a flagship programme under the Union Government. The main pillars of the Namami Gange have been discussed below:
- Sewerage Treatment Infrastructure & Industrial Effluent Monitoring.
- Development of river-front as well as river-surface cleaning.
- Bio-Diversity & Afforestation.
- Public Awareness.
National Ganga Council – Replaces NGRBA
National Council for Rejuvenation, Protection and Management of River Ganga, also known as National Ganga Council replaced National Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA). NGBRA was dissolved from 7th October, 2016.
World Bank Funding – Building Infrastructure along Tributaries of River Ganga
Under the National Ganga River Basin Project, World Bank has approved funds to the tune of US $ 600 million for development of Infrastructure projects along river Ganga. The loan would be for a period of five years, till December 2026. The first World Bank project had assisted in building important infrastructure for management of Sewage water in 20 hotspots along River Ganges. The most recent funds provided by World Bank will help in building infrastructure along important tributaries of River Ganges like River Yamuna and River Kali.
Collaboration with Germany
India had also joined hands with Germany to rejuvenate Ganga as the country’s Ministry of Water Resources and German International Cooperation (GIZ), owned by the German Federal Government signed an agreement in this regard. In August 2017, Germany officially sealed an aid deal of ₹900 crores during a meeting between its Ambassador to India Dr Martin Ney and Uttarakhand’s chief minister Trivendra Singh Rawat. Overall, the EU state has pledged the assistance of 120 million Euros, or ₹100 crores, to the state of Uttarakhand, where the river originates.
Candidates can refer to the Previous Year’s Environment and Ecology Questions in UPSC Mains GS 3, from the linked article.
National Mission for Clean Ganga [UPSC Notes]- Download PDF Here
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