The ISC Class 12 Physics exam is considered as one of the vital papers in the exam. Students who want to make a crack competitive exams like JEE and NEET and make a career in the engineering or medical field must study this subject hard to excel in the examination. ISC board is known for its comprehensive syllabus and well-structured curriculum. Students who are going to appear in the ISC board exam must know the ICSE Syllabus for Class 12 Physics thoroughly to score well in the exam.

## ISC Class 12 Physics Syllabus – Download PDF!

The ISC Class 12 Physics Syllabus is given here in a detailed manner to help students prepare in a organised and effective way. But before going into the syllabus, have a look at the paper pattern.

### ISC Class 12 Physics Paper Pattern

The ISC Class 12 Physics paper is divided into two parts as mentioned below.

**Theory Paper:**It consists of 70 marks. Students are allotted 3 hours of time duration to complete the paper.**Practicals:**The practicals are conducted in 3 hours of time duration. It includes

Practical work – 15 Marks

Project work – 10 Marks

Practical files – 10 Marks

To know the detailed marking scheme, visit ISC Class 12 Physics Marking Scheme page at BYJU’S.

## ISC Class 12 Physics Syllabus (Theory Paper)

### 1. Electrostatics

**(i)** Electric Charges and Fields Electric charges; conservation and quantisation of charge, Coulomb’s law; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution. Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines, electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole, torque on a dipole in uniform electric field. Electric flux, Gauss’s theorem in Electrostatics and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell.

**(a)** Coulomb’s law, S.I. unit of charge; permittivity of free space and of dielectric medium. Frictional electricity, electric charges (two types); repulsion and attraction; simple atomic structure – electrons and ions; conductors and insulators; quantization and conservation of electric charge; Coulomb’s law in vector form; (position coordinates r1, r2 not necessary). Comparison with Newton’s law of gravitation; Superposition principle.

**(b)** Concept of electric field and its intensity; examples of different fields; gravitational, electric and magnetic; Electric field due to a point charge, Intensity due to a continuous distribution of charge i.e. linear, surface and volume.

**(c)** Electric lines of force: A convenient way to visualize the electric field; properties of lines of force; examples of the lines of force due to (i) an isolated point charge (+ve and – ve); (ii) dipole, (iii) two similar charges at a small distance;(iv) uniform field between two oppositely charged parallel plates.

**(d)** Electric dipole and dipole moment; derivation of the E at a point, (1) on the axis (end on position) (2) on the perpendicular bisector (equatorial i.e. broad side on position) of a dipole, also for r>> 2l (short dipole); dipole in a uniform electric field; net force zero, torque on an electric dipole: τ =p × E and its derivation.

**(e)** Gauss’ theorem, Essential properties of a Gaussian surface.

### 2. Current Electricity

Mechanism of flow of current in conductors. Mobility, drift velocity and its relation with electric current; Ohm’s law and its proof, resistance and resistivity and their relation to drift velocity of electrons; V-I characteristics (linear and non-linear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity. Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors; temperature dependence ofresistance and resistivity.

Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel, Kirchhoff’s laws and simple applications, Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge. Potentiometer – principle and its applications to measure potential difference, to compare emf of two cells; to measure internal resistance of a cell.

**(a) **Free electron theory of conduction; acceleration of free electrons, relaxation timeτ ; electric current I = Q/t; concept of drift velocity and electron mobility. Ohm’s law, current density J = I/A; experimental verification, graphs and slope, ohmic and non-ohmic conductors; obtain the relation I=v_{d}enA. Derive σ = ne^{2} τ/m and ρ = m/ne^{2} τ ; effect of temperature on resistivity and resistance of conductors and semiconductors and graphs. Resistance R= V/I; resistivity ρ, given by R = ρ.l/A; conductivity and conductance; Ohm’s law as J= σ E; colour coding of resistance.

**(b)** Electrical energy consumed in time t is E=Pt= VIt; using Ohm’s law. Potential difference V = P/ I; P = V I; Electric power consumed P = VI = V^{2} /R = I^{2} R; commercial units; electricity consumption and billing. Derivation of equivalent resistance for combination of resistors in series and parallel; special case of n identical resistors; R_{s} = nR and R_{p} = R/n. Calculation of equivalent resistance of mixed grouping of resistors (circuits).

**(c)** The source of energy of a seat of emf (such as a cell) may be electrical, mechanical, thermal or radiant energy. The emf of a source is defined as the work done per unit charge to force them to go to the higher point of potential (from -ve terminal to +ve terminal inside the cell) so, ε = dW /dq; but dq = Idt; dW = εdq = εIdt . Equating total work done to the work done across the external resistor R plus the work done across the internal resistance r; εIdt=I^{2} R dt + I^{2} rdt; ε =I (R + r); I=ε/( R + r ); also IR +Ir = ε or V=ε- Ir where Ir is called the back emf as it acts against the emf ε; V is the terminal pd. Derivation of formulae for combination for identical cells in series, parallel and mixed grouping. Parallel combination of two cells of unequal emf. Series combination of n cells of unequal emf.

**(d)** Statement and explanation of Kirchhoff’s laws with simple examples. The first is a conservation law for charge and the 2nd is law of conservation of energy. Application to simple circuits. Wheatstone bridge; Metre bridge is a modified form of Wheatstone bridge, its use to measure unknown resistance. Principle of Potentiometer; potentiometer as a voltmeter. Potential gradient and sensitivity of potentiometer. Use of potentiometer: to compare emfs of two cells, to determine internal resistance of a cell.

### 3. Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism

**(i)** Moving charges and magnetism.

**(ii)** Magnetism and Matter:

### 4. Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents

**(i)** Electromagnetic Induction Faraday’s laws, induced emf and current; Lenz’s Law, eddy currents. Self-induction and mutual induction. Transformer.

**(ii)** Alternating Current Peak value, mean value and RMS value of alternating current/voltage; their relation in sinusoidal case; reactance and impedance; LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits, wattless current. AC generator.

### 5. Electromagnetic Waves

Basic idea of displacement current. Electromagnetic waves, their characteristics, their transverse nature (qualitative ideas only). Complete electromagnetic spectrum starting from radio waves to gamma rays: elementary facts of electromagnetic waves and their uses.

### 6. Optics

**(i)** **Ray Optics and OpticalInstruments**

Ray Optics: Reflection of light by spherical mirrors, mirror formula, refraction of light at plane surfaces, total internal reflection and its applications, optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lens maker’s formula, magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact, combination of a lens and a mirror, refraction and dispersion of light through a prism. Scattering of light. Optical instruments: Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers and their resolving powers.

**(ii)** **Wave Optics**

Wave front and Huygen’s principle. Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygen’s principle. Interference, Young’s double slit experiment and expression for fringe width(β), coherent sources and sustained interference of light, Fraunhofer diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum; polarisation, plane polarised light, Brewster’s law, uses of plane polarised light and Polaroids.

### 7. Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter

Wave particle duality; photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric equation – particle nature of light. Matter waves – wave nature of particles, de-Broglie relation; conclusion from Davisson-Germer experiment. X-rays

### 8. Atoms and Nuclei

**(i)** **Atoms**

Alpha-particle scattering experiment; Rutherford’s atomic model; Bohr’s atomic model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum.

**(ii)** **Nuclei**

Composition and size of nucleus, Radioactivity, alpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law. Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number; Nuclear reactions, nuclear fission and nuclearfusion.

### 9. Electronic Devices

**(i)** Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and SimpleCircuits. Energy bands in conductors, semiconductors and insulators (qualitative ideas only). Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors.

**(ii)** Semiconductor diode: I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier; Special types of junction diodes: LED, photodiode, solar cell and Zener diode and its characteristics, zener diode as a voltage regulator.

**(iii)** Junction transistor, npn and pnp transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor and transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration).

**(iv)** Elementary idea of analogue and digital signals, Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR). Combination of gates.

### 10. Communication Systems

Elements of a communication system (block diagram only); bandwidth of signals (speech, TV and digital data); bandwidth of transmission medium. Modes of propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere through sky and space waves, satellite communication. Modulation, types (frequency and amplitude), need for modulation and demodulation, advantages of frequency modulation over amplitude modulation. Elementary ideas about internet, mobile network and global positioning system (GPS).

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