Class 12 Biology Index Page

Class 12 Biology syllabus is prepared by our team of subject experts and the chapters listed below are arranged according to the latest syllabus of CBSE. In this class 12 Biology index, the main chapters list and its sub contents are provided, in order to assist students to learn every concept in-depth and perform their best in the examination.

The complete syllabus for Class 12 Biology is provided here, which students can download and get acquainted with the topics that are essential to study in their respective classes.

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Class 12 Biology Chapters List

Unit-VI Reproduction

Chapter 1: Reproduction

1.1 Reproduction- A characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species

1.2 Modes of Reproduction – asexual and sexual reproduction

1.3 Asexual reproduction

1.3.1 Binary fission

1.3.2 Sporulation

1.3.3 Budding

1.3.4 Gemmule formation

1.3.5 Fragmentation

1.3.6 Vegetative propagation in plants

Chapter 2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

2.1 Flower structure

2.2 Development of male and female gametophytes

2.3 Pollination

2.3.1 Types, agencies and examples

2.4 Outbreeding devices -Pollen-pistil interaction

2.4.1 Double fertilization

2.4.2 Post-fertilization events – development of endosperm and embryo

2.5 Development of seed and formation of fruit

2.6 Special modes-

2.6.1 Apomixis

2.6.2 Parthenocarpy

2.6.3 Polyembryony

2.7 Significance of seed dispersal and fruit formation.

Chapter-3: Human Reproduction

3.1 Male and female reproductive system

3.2 Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary

3.3 Gametogenesis- spermatogenesis and oogenesis

3.4 Menstrual cycle

3.5 Fertilization

3.6 Embryo development

3.6.1 Blastocyst formation

3.6.2 Implantation

3.7 Pregnancy and placenta formation

3.8 Parturition

3.9 Lactation

Chapter-4: Reproductive Health

4.1 Need for reproductive health

4.2 Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)

4.3 Birth control – need and methods,

4.3.1 Contraception

4.3.2 Medical termination of pregnancy (MTP)

4.4 Amniocentesis

4.5 Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT.

Unit VII: Genetics and Evolution

Chapter-5: Principles of Inheritance and Variation

5.1 Heredity and variation

5.1.1 Mendelian inheritance

5.2 Deviations from Mendelism

5.2.1 Incomplete dominance

5.2.2 Codominance and multiple alleles and inheritance of blood groups

5.2.3 Pleiotropy

5.3 Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance

5.4 Chromosome theory of inheritance

5.5 Chromosomes and genes

5.6 Sex determination – in human being, birds and honey bee

5.7 Linkage and crossing over

5.8 Sex-linked inheritance

5.8.1 Haemophilia

5.8.2 Colour blindness

5.9 Mendelian disorders in humans -thalassemia

5.10 Chromosomal disorders in humans

5.11 Down’s syndrome

5.12 Turner’s syndromes

5.13 Klinefelter’s syndrome

Chapter-6: Molecular Basis of Inheritance

6.1 Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material

6.2 Structure of DNA

6.2.1 Structure of RNA

6.3 DNA packaging

6.4 DNA replication

6.5 Central Dogma

6.6 Transcription

6.6.1 Genetic code

6.6.2 Translation

6.7 Gene expression and regulation.

6.7.1 Lac operon

6.8.Genome

6.8.1.Human genome project

6.8.2.Rice genome project

6.9.DNA fingerprinting

Chapter-7: Evolution

7.1 Origin of life

7.2 Biological evolution and Evidence for biological evolution

7.2.1 Paleontology

7.2.2 Comparative anatomy

7.2.3 Embryology

7.2.4 Molecular evidence

7.3 Darwin’s contribution

7.3.1 Modern synthetic theory of evolution

7.4 Mechanism of evolution – variation (mutation and recombination) natural selection with examples

7.5 Types of natural selection

7.6 Gene flow and genetic drift

7.7 Hardy – Weinberg’s principle

7.8 Adaptive radiation

7.9 Human evolution

Unit VIII: Biology and Human Welfare

Chapter-8: Human Health and Diseases

8.1 Pathogens

8.2 Parasites causing human diseases

8.2.1 Malaria

8.2.2 Dengue

8.2.3 Chikungunya

8.2.4 Filariasis

8.2.5 Ascariasis

8.2.6 Typhoid

8.2.7 Pneumonia

8.2.8 Common cold

8.2.9 Amoebiasis

8.2.10 Ringworm

8.3 Basic concepts of immunology

8.3.1 Vaccines

8.3.2 Cancer

8.3.3 HIV and AIDS

8.4 Adolescence – Drug and Alcohol Abuse.

Chapter-9: Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

9.1 Animal husbandry

9.2 Plant breeding

9.3 Tissue culture

9.4 Single-cell protein.

Chapter-10: Microbes in Human Welfare

10.1 Microbes in food processing

10.2 Industrial production

10.3 Sewage treatment

10.4 Energy generation

10.5 Microbes as biocontrol agents

10.6 Bio-fertilizers

10.7 Antibiotics production and judicious use

Unit IX: Biotechnology and its Applications

Chapter-11: Biotechnology – Principles and Processes

11.1 Genetic Engineering

11.2 Recombinant DNA Technology

Chapter-12: Biotechnology and its Application

12.1 Application of biotechnology in health and agriculture

12.1.1 Human insulin

12.1.2 Vaccine production

12.2 Stem cell technology

12.2.1 Gene therapy

12.3 Genetically modified organisms

12.3.1 Bt crops

12.3.2 Transgenic Animals

12.3.3 Biosafety issues

12.3.4 Biopiracy and patents

Unit X: Ecology and Environment

Chapter-13: Organisms and Populations

13.1 Organisms and environment

13.1.1 Habitat and niche

13.1.2 Population

13.1.3 Ecological adaptations

13.2 Population interactions

13.2.1 Mutualism

13.2.2 Competition

13.2.3 Predation

13.2.4 Parasitism

13.3 Population attributes

13.3.1 Growth

13.3.2 Birth rate and death rate

13.3.3 Age distribution

Chapter-14: Ecosystem

14.1 Ecosystems: Patterns and components

14.2 Productivity and decomposition

14.3 Energy flow

14.4 Pyramids of number

14.4.1 Biomass

14.4.2 Energy

14.5 Nutrient cycles

14.5.1 Carbon

14.5.2 Phosphorous

14.6 Ecological succession

14.7 Ecological services

14.7.1 Carbon fixation

14.7.2 Pollination

14.7.3 Seed dispersal

14.7.4 Oxygen release

Chapter-15: Biodiversity and its Conservation

15.1 Biodiversity – Concept, patterns, importance

15.2 Loss of biodiversity

15.3 Biodiversity conservation

15.3.1 Hotspots

15.3.2 Endangered organisms

15.3.3 Extinction

15.3.4 Red Data Book

15.3.5 Sacred Groves

15.3.6 Biosphere reserves

15.3.7 National parks

15.3.8 Wildlife

15.3.9 Sanctuaries

15.3.10 Ramsar sites.

Chapter-16: Environmental Issues

16.1 Air pollution and its control

16.2 Water pollution and its control

16.3 Agrochemicals and their effects

16.4 Solid waste management

16.5 Radioactive waste management

16.6 Greenhouse effect

16.7 Climate change

16.8 Impact and mitigation

16.9 Ozone layer depletion

16.10 Deforestation

16.11 Case study exemplifying success

16.12 Story addressing the environmental issue(s)

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