NCERT Notes: Geography Notes For UPSC 2021

Geography is a very important subject in the UPSC exam, covered by both IAS Prelims and Mains papers. Geography for UPSC covers Indian Geography as well as World geography. The following concepts in Geography are covered broadly by the UPSC Syllabus:

  • Physical Geography
  • Human Geography
  • Environmental Geography

Get previous year UPSC Prelims Geography Questions in the linked article.

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The UPSC Syllabus covers Geography in prelims as one of the subjects in General Awareness, while the IAS mains syllabus for Geography is covered both in the General Studies and Geography Optional papers. The following major topics should be covered in Geography for IAS:

  • Geomorphology
  • Climatology
  • Oceanography
  • Biogeography
  • Environmental Geography
  • Perspectives in Human Geography
  • Economic Geography
  • Population and Settlement Geography
  • Regional Planning
  • Models, Theories and Laws in Human Geography
  • Physical and Cultural Setting of India
  • Resources, Agriculture, Transport, Communication and Trade in India
  • Contemporary Ecological Issues and Biodiversity

UPSC Books List PDF :-Download PDF Here

NCERT Notes on Geography for UPSC

The most important source of Geography for UPSC is NCERT Books. Aspirants should read geography from NCERT Books for UPSC to prepare for the IAS Exam. Taking notes is an efficient way to organise the study material for revision. UPSC candidates often find it difficult to find the right topics to focus on or may not have the time or resources at hand to take efficient notes. With this in mind, we at BYJU’S have developed a compilation of NCERT Notes for UPSC. This page compiles all the NCERT Notes on Geography and additional notes on Geography for UPSC to help IAS aspirants prepare better and faster.

NCERT Notes: Geography – Air NCERT Notes: Geography – Air
List of Biosphere Reserves in India Classification of Soil in India – Types of Soil in India
NCERT Notes: Maps [Geography Notes For UPSC] Highest Peaks in States of India
Hydroelectric Power Plants in India Important Lakes of India [UPSC Notes]
Mountain Passes in India Climate, Vegetation & Wildlife of India
NCERT Notes: Geography – Inside Our Earth IUCN Red List
NCERT Notes: Geography – GLOBE: LATITUDES AND LONGITUDES National Parks in India
Major Local Winds Around Globe: UPSC IAS Prelims Exam Longitudinal Division of the Himalayas
Major Crops India for UPSC IAS Prelims Examination NCERT Notes: Geography – Major Domains of the Earth
NCERT Geography Notes – MAJOR LANDFORMS OF THE EARTH Major Ports in India – List of Western & Eastern Coast Ports in India (UPSC Prelims)
The Major Indian River Systems Marine Protected Areas in India
NCERT Notes: Geography – Motions of the Earth Natural Vegetation in India
NCERT Notes: Geography- Weathering NCERT Notes: Atmospheric Pressure [Geography Notes For UPSC]
Biodiversity – Species, Genetics & Ecosystem Biodiversity [UPSC Notes] NCERT Notes: Biogeochemical Cycles [Geography Notes For UPSC]
NCERT Notes: Biological Weathering [Geography Notes For UPSC] NCERT Notes: Geography – Carbon Cycle
NCERT Notes: Geography – Causes of biodiversity loss NCERT Notes: Chemical Weathering [Geography Notes For UPSC]
NCERT Notes: Geography- Composition of the atmosphere What is Biodiversity Conservation and its Importance?
NCERT Notes: Endogenic Processes [Geography Notes For UPSC] NCERT Notes: Exogenic Processes [Geography Notes For UPSC]
Temperate Cyclones [NCERT Notes For Geography UPSC] Factors Controlling Temperature Distribution [Geography Notes For UPSC]
NCERT Notes: Forces Affecting Velocity And Direction Of Wind [Geography Notes For UPSC] General Circulation Of The Atmosphere: Geography Notes For UPSC
NCERT Notes: Geography As A Discipline [Geography Notes For UPSC] NCERT Notes: Causes Of Climate Change [Geography Notes For UPSC]
NCERT Notes: Types Of Clouds [Geography Notes For UPSC] NCERT Notes: Continental Drift [Geography Notes For UPSC]
NCERT Notes: Types Of Rocks [Geography Notes For UPSC] NCERT Notes: Ocean Floor And Its Features [Geography Notes For UPSC]
NCERT Notes: Earth And The Solar System [Geography Notes For UPSC] NCERT Notes: Earthquake – Body Waves, Causes & Types [Geography Notes For UPSC]
NCERT Notes: Environment [Geography Notes For UPSC] NCERT Notes: Geography- Erosional landforms
NCERT Notes: Evaporation And Condensation [Geography Notes For UPSC] NCERT Notes: Glacial Depositional Landforms [Geography Notes For UPSC]
NCERT Notes: Glacial Erosional Landforms [Geography Notes For UPSC] NCERT Notes: The Hydrologic Cycle [Geography Notes For UPSC]
NCERT Notes: Geography- Koeppen’s Climate Classification NCERT Notes: Geography- Some major minerals and their characteristics
NCERT Notes: Geography- Minor Relief of the Ocean floor NCERT Notes: Structure Of The Earth [Geography Notes For UPSC]
Types Of Rainfall -NCERT Notes- [Geography Notes For UPSC] NCERT Notes: Volcanic Landforms [Geography Notes For UPSC]
NCERT Notes: Volcanoes [Geography Notes For UPSC] NCERT Notes: Ocean Waves [Geography Notes For UPSC]
NCERT Notes: Geomorphic Processes [Geography Notes For UPSC] NCERT Notes: Heating And Cooling Of The Atmosphere [Geography Notes For UPSC]
NCERT Notes: Horizontal And Vertical Distribution Of Salinity [Geography Notes For UPSC] NCERT Notes: Geography- Importance of Biodiversity
NCERT Notes: Koppen Climate Classification [Geography Notes For UPSC] NCERT Notes: Geography- Koeppen ‘ s Climate Classification- Group B Climates
NCERT Notes: Geography- Koeppen ‘ s Climate Classification- Group C Climates NCERT Notes: Geography-Koeppen ‘ s Climate Classification- Group D Climates
NCERT Notes: Group E & H Climates (Koeppen’s Climate Classification) UPSC Notes: Geography- Loss of biodiversity
NCERT Notes: Mass Movements [Geography Notes For UPSC] NCERT Notes: The Nitrogen Cycle [Geography Notes For UPSC]
NCERT Notes: The Origin And The Evolution Of The Earth [Geography Notes For UPSC] NCERT Notes: The Oxygen Cycle [Geography Notes For UPSC]
NCERT Notes: Geography-Physical characteristics of minerals NCERT Notes: Geography- Physical Weathering
NCERT Notes: The Rock Cycle [Geography Notes For UPSC] NCERT Notes: Salinity Of Ocean Water [Geography Notes For UPSC]
NCERT Notes: Significance Of Weathering [Geography Notes For UPSC] Structure of Atmosphere (NCERT Notes for Geography)
NCERT Notes: Earth – Origin & Evolution [Geography Notes For UPSC] NCERT Notes: Tropical Cyclones [Geography Notes For UPSC]
NCERT Notes: Geography – Our Changing Earth NCERT Notes: Geography – OUR COUNTRY – INDIA
Physiographic Division of Great Plains of India Rainfall In India
What are the Parts of a River Called? Thermal Power Plants In India
List Of Major Straits For UPSC Prelims Exam Preparation UPSC IAS Prelims Examination: Important Cities and Rivers
Major National Highways in India National Waterways in India – UPSC Exam Preparation
UPSC IAS Exam: West Flowing Rivers of Peninsular India Types of Wind – UPSC Geography Notes
UPSC GS-I Notes: Western and Eastern Ghats of India Western Ghats
Water – A Resource
Urban Planning and Development in India
UPSC Notes: Water Scarcity
What is Volcano Explain? Geography notes for UPSC: Volcanism

Additional Notes on Geography for UPSC

These notes cover all the major Geography Topics for IAS including Indian and World Geography. Candidates should use these notes in conjunction with the NCERT Books for UPSC to cover the complete UPSC Syllabus for Geography.

Read more on UPSC Geography Syllabus:

Studying Geography requires a thorough understanding of the structure of the earth and how natural processes interact with the Earth’s crust. Based on this knowledge, aspirants should build up knowledge on various aspects of geography such as the location of geographical features, climate, flora and fauna and their interaction with humans, along with related topics such as soil and resource distribution.

Get past year Geography questions from UPSC Mains for answer-writing practise.

UPSC 2021 related queries

  • Which is the best book for geography for IAS?
  • Ans. The following are the best books recommended for Geography preparation for the IAS exam:
    • Certificate of Physical and Human Geography by Goh Cheng Leong
    • Objective Indian and World Geography by Majid Husain
    • Geography of India by Majid Hussain
    • World Geography by Majid Hussain
    • NCERT Books on Geography


  • Is NCERT book enough for IAS?
  • Ans. NCERT Books are a must to prepare for the IAS exam. For some candidates with very good grasp of the subjects in the syllabus of UPSC, NCERT books are enough for clearing the UPSC exam. However, to be able to clear the IAS exam with a very good rank, one must supplement their preparation with other books and study material such as Current Affairs Magazines.


  • Is GC Leong enough for prelims?
  • Ans. G.C Leong is a very good book on Geography and should be studied for both UPSC Prelims and Mains. However, aspirants should study NCERT Geography for IAS before starting with G.C Leong as the subject matter is covered in detail in this book.


  • What is physical, social and economic geography of India?
  • Ans. The Geography of India is divided into physical, social and economic geography of India for ease of study. The following topics constitute each subdivision:
    • Physical Geography of India: Climate, drainage and river systems, biodiversity, physiography and soils.
    • Social Geography of India: Religion, language and demographic structure.
    • Economic Geography of India: Livestock and agriculture, power and mineral resources, industries, trade and transportation.


  • Can we clear IAS without coaching?
  • Ans. IAS can be cleared without coaching if discipline is maintained while preparing for the exam. Self study requires the candidate to structure their preparation and study diligently from a limited set of books as opposed to coaching where they will have structured study material provided.


  • What is the salary of an IAS officer?
  • Ans. Currently, the basic pay of an entry level IAS officer is Rs. 56100. The total salary goes up to Rs. 130000 per month but deductions for various reasons including tax and welfare funds as well as PF are deducted from this total. The in hand salary differs from cadre to cadre and place of posting.


  • Can I prepare for IAS in 3 months?
  • Ans. Yes, it is possible to prepare for IAS in 3 months and clear the exam. However, preparation levels should be extremely high and thus, it would require a lot of intense studying and lot more time devoted to solving previous questions than a typical UPSC aspirant. A positive mind and can do attitude will go a long way.


  • Are IAS officers paid during training?
  • Ans. IAS officers are paid from the day they join LBSNAA. The Amount they get is similar to the stipend paid for other Grade A Gazetted officer trainees in other services.


  • How long is IAS training?
  • Ans. IAS Training at LBSNAA lasts for 75 weeks. Before 2014, IAS officers used to train for 103 weeks before moving to their respective cadres.


  • What is the highest post of IAS?
  • Ans. The highest post that an IAS officer can aspire to is the Chief Secretary of the Government of India. If the IAS officer is posted in a state, then the highest post they can reach is Chief Secretary of The State Government.


  1. many many thanks for uploading study material!!!!!!

  2. Which book is essential for geography optional , how to get optional syllabus for paper-1 and paper-2

    1. Hi,
      Download Geography Optional syllabus from the link provided.

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