Aldehydes and ketones are two different classes of organic compounds yet they exhibit remarkable similarity in chemical reactions. Aldehydes and ketones constitute an important class of organic compounds containing the carbonyl group. An aldehyde has the structure RCH(=O) while a ketone has the structure R2C(=O). Both aldehydes and ketones may be represented by the general formula CnH2nO.
One of the most useful set of chemical methods for C-C bond formation is the catalytic aldol condensation.The aldol condensation is a self-condensation of two molecules of aldehydes in the presence of a dilute base to yield an aldol.
Crossed Aldol Condensation
Cannizzaro reaction is a chemical reaction named after Stanislao Cannizzaro, which involves the base-induced disproportionation of two non-enolizable aldehyde molecules to produce a carboxylic acid and a primary alcohol.
Perkin Reaction is an organic chemical reaction discovered by the English chemist William Henry Perkin. This reaction produces an aromatic acid which is α, β -unsaturated.
The haloform reaction mechanism begins with the presence of the hydroxide ion disproportionation of the halogen. Haloform reactions involve the interaction of methyl ketones with alkaline halogen solution to give haloform plus a carboxylate ion.
Some Important Aldehydes and Ketones
Aldehydes and Ketones are highly reactive compounds. This is due to the presence of the carbonyl group in these compounds.
Oxidation of alcohols with acetone or its analogues as the sole Oxidant hydrogen transfer reaction between alcohols and ketones or aldehydes is another mild and environmentally benign method for oxidation of alcohols.
Meerwein Ponndorf Verley Reduction
Meerwein Ponndorf Verley reduction is the aluminium isopropoxide reduction of the carbonyl group of a ketone or an aldehyde. The reaction is specific to aldehydes and ketones.
Reformatsky Reaction is a kind of reaction between an alpha-halo ester and a carbonyl compound that can be ketone, aldehyde, or ester. In the presence of zinc the reaction occurs mostly. The reaction is also a description of the extended reactions of a dialkylzinc or an alkyl zinc halide between carbonyl compounds.
Collectively, aldehydes and ketones are called Carbonyl compounds. In the basic structure of Aldehydes, in which R is any hydrocarbon chain, or may even be hydrogen. Ketones’ basic structure is similarly represented as Aldehydes, but Carbonyl Carbon (the carbon to which an oxygen is double-bonded) is surrounded instead of one by two hydrocarbon chains.