Blood group Vs. Genotype

Genotypes and blood groups are inherited from parents. There are as many as 41 types of blood groups (as of 2019 by the ISBT), importantly the Rh group and ABO systems. Within these two blood group systems, there are 8 different phenotypes in human blood – A-Positive, B-Positive, A-Negative, B-Negative, AB-Positive, AB-Negative, O-Positive, and O-Negative.

The genotype is indicative of the protein type that is found in the RBCs (red blood cells). Individuals with the genotype SS and SC have sickle cell diseases. On the basis of the type of hemoglobin found in the RBCs, humans have six genotypes – AA, AC, AS, CC, SC, and SS.

Key Difference between Blood group and Genotype

The main difference between blood group and genotype is that blood group constitutes the different kinds of blood found in humans, governed by different antigens found on the surface of the RBCs (red blood cells). On the other hand, genotype forms the genetic constituency of cells in humans.

Blood group

  • The absence or presence of antibodies and inherited antigenic particles on the surface of RBCs leads to the classification of blood into different blood groups
  • Carbohydrates, proteins, and glycoproteins are the antigens based on the blood group system
  • A few of these antigens are found on the surface of the other cell types of different tissues

Genotype

  • It makes up for the genetic constitution of an individual – the genetic makeup of an entity
  • One’s genotype makes up for the entire heritable genetic identity – the genes transferred from the parent to the offspring
  • The RBCs (red blood cells are) involved to determine the genotype of humans

Key Differences Between Blood group and Genotype

The table below depicts the differences between Blood group and Genotype –

Blood group

Genotype

What are they?

Refers to different human blood types determined by different antigens found on the surface of the RBCs

It makes up for the genetic makeup of a cell

Occurrence

Found outside RBCs

Found in every cell

What is the phenotype?

In humans, there are 8 phenotypes of blood groups – A-Positive, B-Positive, A-Negative, B-Negative, AB-Positive, AB-Negative, O-Positive, and O-Negative

In humans, there are 6 phenotypes – AA, AC, AS, CC, SC, and SS

How are they determined?

By absence or presence of antigens on the surface of the RBCs

By amino acid sequences of haemoglobin in RBCs

What traits does it control?

Governs traits of RBC type only

Governs all the characters that are observed

Example

A type, O type, AB type, B type, etc

Height, hair color, eye colour, etc – those traits controlled by single genes

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