Flashcards for NEET Chemistry - Organic Chemistry – Some Basic Principles and Techniques

Flashcards for NEET Chemistry are designed to boost your NEET preparation. Find below flashcards for the chapter “Organic Chemistry – Some Basic Principles and Techniques ”. These flashcards are prepared as per the NEET syllabus. These are helpful for aspirants of NEET and other exams during last-minute revision. It covers all the important points that are frequently asked in the exam. Check BYJU’S for the full set of Flashcards and Study material for NEET Chemistry.

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Chemistry

Organic Chemistry – Some Basic Principles and Techniques

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flashcards for neet chemistry nov16 organic chemistry some basic principles and techniques 1
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Organic Chemistry – Some Basic Principles and Techniques
Aliphatic Compounds Straight or branched chain compounds

E.g. Ethane, Isobutane, Acetaldehyde, Ethanol, etc.

Aromatic Compounds Commonly called ‘arenes’. They have a ring system with a planar structure and (4n + 2) π electrons that are delocalised in the ring

E.g. Benzene, Naphthalene, Cyclopentadienyl anion, Toluene, etc.

Metamerism Different alkyl chains on either side of the functional group of the molecule, e.g. methoxypropane (CH3OC3H7) and ethoxyethane (C2H5OC2H5)
Stereoisomerism Difference in relative positions of atoms or groups in compounds with same constitution and sequence of covalent bonds

Geometrical and optical isomerism

Nucleophiles Nucleus seeking reagent that donates an electron pair. They are negatively charged ions or neutral molecules with lone pair of electrons

E.g. hydroxide (HO ), cyanide (NC) ions and carbanions (R3C), H2O, R3N, R2NH, etc.

Electrophiles Electron seeking reagent that accepts an electron pair

E.g. carbocations, carbonyl group (>C=O) or alkyl halides, etc.

Inductive Effect An ability of substituent(s) to either withdraw or donate electron density to the attached carbon atom

Electron withdrawing groups – halogen, -NO2, -CN, -COOH, -COOR, etc.

Electron donating groups – alkyl groups

Positive Resonance Effect (+R effect) Transfer of electrons away from an atom or substituent group attached to the conjugated system

E.g. – halogen, –OH, –OR, –OCOR, –NH2, –NHR, –NR2, –NHCOR

Negative Resonance Effect (-R effect) Transfer of electrons towards the atom or substituent group attached to the conjugated system

E.g. – COOH, –CHO, >C=O, – CN, –NO2

Electromeric Effect (E effect) Positive Electromeric Effect (+E effect) – The π−electrons of the multiple bonds are transferred to the atom that gets attached to the reagent

Negative Electromeric Effect (–E effect) – The π−electrons of the multiple bonds are transferred to the atom that does not get attached to the reagent

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