Flashcards For NEET Biology Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

Flashcards for NEET Biology are designed to boost your NEET preparation. Find below flashcards for Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants. These flashcards on Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants are prepared as per the NEET syllabus. This is helpful for aspirants of NEET and other exams during last-minute revision. Flashcards For NEET Biology – Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants, covers all the important points that are frequently asked in the exam. Check BYJU’S for the full set of Flashcards and Study material for NEET Biology. Solve NEET Biology MCQs to check your understanding and outperform in the exam.

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Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
Androecium The male reproductive organ

Stamen – made up of anther and filament

Microsporangium Present in the anther and develops into a pollen sac
Tapetum The innermost layer of microsporangia having multinucleate cells

Provides nourishment to pollen grains

Sporogenous tissue Microspore mother cell

Homogenous tissue present in the microsporangia of a young anther

Each cell is capable of developing into microspore mother cell

Microsporogenesis Formation of microspores tetrad by meiosis in the microspore mother cells or pollen mother cells (PMC)

Microspores develop into pollen grains

Exine The outer layer of pollen grains

Made up of sporopollenin, the most resistant organic compound known

Germpore- does not contain sporopollenin

Intine The inner layer of pollen grains

Made up of cellulose and pectin

Vegetative cell The large cell of pollen grains with ample food reserve

Has irregular nucleus

Generative cell The smaller spindle-shaped cell of pollen grains

Divides mitotically forming two male gametes

Gynoecium The female reproductive organ

Pistil – made up of stigma, style and ovary

Syncarpous- pistils fused, e.g. Papaver

Apocarpous- pistils free, e.g. Michelia

Megasporangium Ovule

Present in the ovary, attached to placenta

One ovule – wheat, mango, paddy

Many ovules – watermelon, papaya, orchids

Funicle The stalk by which an ovule is attached to the placenta
Hilum The junction between funicle and ovule
Integuments The double protective envelope of the ovule

Encloses nucellus except at micropyle

Micropyle A small opening in the integuments

Pollen tube enters through this pore

Chalaza The basal part of the ovule opposite to the micropylar end

Antipodal cells are present at the chalazal end

Megasporogenesis Formation of megaspores by meiosis in the megaspore mother cell (MMC)

Only one cell at the micropylar end differentiates into the megaspore mother cell

Female gametophyte Embryo sac

Only one of the four megaspores develop into female gametophyte, rest three degenerate

Embryo sac 8 nucleate and 7 celled

Egg apparatus – 3 cells at the micropylar end, 2 synergids and 1 egg cell.

Antipodals – 3 cells at the chalazal end

Central cell- 2 polar nuclei

Autogamy Self-pollination within the same flower

Cleistogamous – flowers which do not open

E.g. Oxalis, Viola, Commelina

Geitonogamy Transfer of pollen to the different flower of the same plant
Xenogamy Transfer of pollen to the stigma of different plant
Pollinating agents Insects or wind – Water hyacinth, water lily

Water – Vallisneria, Hydrilla, Zostera (seagrasses)

Wind – grasses

Moth – Yucca, moth lays eggs in the ovary

Emasculation Removal of anthers from the bisexual flower to facilitate cross-fertilization
Bagging Covering of emasculated flower with a bag to prevent contamination of stigma by unwanted pollen
Double fertilization Syngamy – fusion of egg nucleus and male gamete to form a zygote

Triple fusion – formation of a triploid primary endosperm nucleus by fusion of the second male gamete and two polar nuclei

Endosperm Develops from primary endosperm cell (PEC)

Triploid

Coconut water and tender coconut – free-nuclear endosperm

Perisperm Residual nucellus in the seed

E.g. black pepper, beet

False fruit Example – Apple and strawberry, thalamus is a part of the fruit
Parthenocarpy Development of fruit without fertilisation

Can be induced by growth hormone application

Seedless fruits

E.g. banana

Apomixis Asexual reproduction

Production of seed without fertilisation

Embryo is formed without fertilisation from diploid egg cell

E.g. Asteraceae, grasses

Polyembryony Nucellar cells develop into embryos

Formation of multiple embryos in a seed. All the plants are genetically identical

E.g. Mango, Citrus

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Also Check:

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