Flashcards For NEET Biology - Human Reproduction

Flashcards for NEET Biology are designed to boost your NEET preparation. Find below flashcards for Human Reproduction. These flashcards on Human Reproduction are prepared as per the NEET syllabus. This is helpful for aspirants of NEET and other exams during last-minute revision. Flashcards For NEET Biology – Human Reproduction, covers all the important points that are frequently asked in the exam. Check BYJU’S for the full set of Flashcards and Study material for NEET Biology. Solve NEET Biology MCQs to check your understanding and outperform in the exam.

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Name of the NEET sub-section

Topic

Flashcards helpful for

Biology

Human Reproduction

NEET exams

 

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Human Reproduction

Scrotum

The pouch outside abdominal cavity of males where testes are present

Temperature is 2-2.5℃ lower than body to allow spermatogenesis

Seminiferous tubules

Present in testicular lobules

Sperms are produced here

Lined by male germ cells and Sertoli cells

Spermatogonia

Male germ cells

Location- Present in the internal lining of seminiferous tubules

Function- Divide meiotically to form sperms

Sertoli Cells

Location- Present in the internal lining of seminiferous tubules

Function- Provide nourishment to spermatogonia

Stimulated by FSH- secrete certain factor, which helps in spermiogenesis

Leydig cells

Interstitial cells

Location- Present in the interstitial space outside seminiferous tubules

Function- Secrete androgens (Testosterone), stimulated by LH

Insemination

Transfer of sperms to the female genital tract

Male accessory gland

Seminal vesicle- one pair

Prostate gland- one

Bulbourethral gland- one pair

Secrete seminal plasma

Seminal plasma

Secreted by male accessory glands

Contains- Fructose, Ca, prostaglandins, citric acid, certain enzymes

Semen = seminal plasma + sperm

Bulbourethral gland

Cowper’s gland

Male accessory gland

Secretes seminal plasma

Helps in lubrication of penis

Fallopian tube

A pair of oviducts, connecting ovaries to the uterus

Parts- Infundibulum, ampulla, isthmus

Infundibulum

Funnel-shaped

The part of fallopian tubes closer to ovaries

fimbriae- finger-like projections present at the edges

It collects ovum after ovulation

Ampulla

The wider portion of oviduct after infundibulum

Fertilisation takes place here

Uterus

Also known as womb

Cervix- connects uterus to vagina

Perimetrium- outer layer, thin membranous

Myometrium- middle, smooth muscle

Endometrium- inner glandular

Primary spermatocytes

Diploid (46 chromosomes)

Spermatogonial cells, which divide meiotically

Form two secondary spermatocytes after meiosis I

Secondary spermatocytes

Haploid (23 chromosomes)

Formed after meiosis I in the primary spermatocytes

Spermatids

Haploid (23 chromosomes)

Formed after meiosis II in the secondary spermatocytes

Spermiogenesis

Transformation of spermatids to spermatozoa or mature sperms

Spermiation

Release of sperms from Sertoli cells to seminiferous tubules

Sperm or Spermatozoa

Head- nucleus with chromosomal material

Acrosome- cap-like structure on the head

Middle piece- contains mitochondria

Neck and tail

Acrosome

The anterior portion of sperm head

Derived from Golgi bodies

Contains digestive enzymes- hyaluronidase, acrosin

Helps in reaching sperm to the cytoplasm of ovum through zona pellucida

Oogenesis

Starts during embryonic development

Oogonia are formed before birth

Cell division is arrested in primary oocytes (2n) at prophase I (diplotene) of meiosis

Primary follicles

60,000-80,000 at puberty

made up of primary oocytes surrounded by granulosa cells

Secondary follicles

Primary follicles surrounded by more granulosa layers and a theca

Tertiary follicles

Contains antrum- a fluid-filled cavity

Primary oocytes complete meiosis I at this stage to form secondary oocyte (n) and first polar body

Graaffian follicle

Mature follicle

Zona pellucida layer is formed around the secondary oocytes

Ovulation occurs at this stage

Menarche

The first menstrual cycle at the onset of puberty

Ovulation

In the middle of menstrual cycle

Induced by LH surge

Graafian follicle ruptures to release secondary oocyte

Corpus luteum

Formed after ovulation by transformation of Graafian follicle

Secretes- Progesterone, required for maintaining endometrium during pregnancy

Ootid or Ovum

Formed by- meiosis II in the secondary oocyte

Induced by sperm entry

Blastomeres

Daughter cells formed by the mitotic division or cleavage in the zygote

Morula

Embryo with 8-16 blastomeres

Transforms into blastocyst after further division

Blastocyst

Blastomeres arranged into outer trophoblast layer and inner cell mass

Implantation

Adherence of embryo to the wall of uterus

Trophoblast- attaches to endometrium

Inner cell mass- differentiate into embryo

Endometrial cells divide and cover blastocyst

Placenta

Formed by interdigitated chorionic villi and uterine tissue

A connecting link between developing embryo and mother, IgG can cross placenta

Facilitate gaseous exchange and removal of excretory waste

Secretes hormones- hCG, estrogens, progestogens

Chorionic villi

Finger-like projections on trophoblast formed after implantation

Embryonic development

First month- heart is formed

Second month- limbs and digits

First trimester- external genital organs and most of the other organs

Fifth month- hair on the head and movement of foetus

Second trimester- body hair, eyelids, eyelashes

Parturition

The process of childbirth

Vigorous contraction in the myometrium of uterus

Birth canal = cervix + vagina

Release of oxytocin from pituitary

Colostrum

The first milk produced during lactation

It contains antibodies, IgA is the major immunoglobulin present

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