Hybridization of CO2 (Carbon Dioxide)

We will learn about the hybridization of CO2 on this page. Carbon dioxide basically has an sp hybridization type. This type of hybridization occurs as a result of carbon being bound to two other atoms. Bonds can be either two double bonds or one single + one triple bond. We can determine this by closely observing each atom of CO2.

Name of the Molecule Carbon Dioxide
Molecular Formula CO2
Hybridization Type sp
Bond Angle 180o
Geometry Linear

What is the Hybridization of Carbon Dioxide?

In determining the hybridization of carbon dioxide, we will take the carbon atom first. The carbon atom has two effective pairs or two double bonds exist in it. However, this is not enough to form bonds with oxygen. What happens next is that one electron from 2s orbital moves from the 2s level to 2p level which results in the formation of two hybrid orbitals. Now, these sp hybridized orbitals of carbon atom overlap with two p orbitals of the oxygen atoms to form 2 sigma bonds. As for the two remaining p electrons they will be used to form a pi bond.

Hybridization Of CO2

In carbon dioxide molecule, oxygen also hybridizes its orbitals to form three sp2 hybrid orbitals. The p orbital in oxygen remains unchanged and is mainly used to form a pi bond. However, out of the three sp hybrid orbitals, only one will be used to form a bond with the carbon atom.

Important Points To Remember

  • In the formation of CO2, two particles – carbon and oxygen have to be considered separately.
  • During the formation of carbon dioxide, one non-hybridized p-atoms of carbon bonds with one oxygen atom and the other bonds with another oxygen atom.
  • The hybridization results in a linear arrangement with an angle of 180° between bonds.

CO2 Molecular Geometry And Bond Angles

CO2 molecular geometry is based on a linear arrangement. This geometric shape is mainly due to the presence of a sigma bond and valence electron pairs repelling each other where they are forced to move to the opposite side of the carbon atom. As a result, carbon atom acquires such a linear molecular shape with symmetric charge distribution.

The carbon dioxide bond angle is 180 degrees.

Read More About Hybridization of Other Chemical Compounds