 # Magnetic Permeability

## What is Magnetic Permeability?

Magnetic permeability also referred to as permeability in electromagnetism is a property of a magnetic material which supports the formation of a magnetic field. The term was coined by Oliver Heaviside in the year 1885. Magnetic permeability is a property that basically allows magnetic lines of force to pass through a material.

In other words, the magnetic permeability of a material can also be said to be its magnetization capability. This helps in determining how much of magnetic flux can the material support which will pass through it.

### Magnetic Permeability Definition

Magnetic permeability is defined as the ratio of the magnetic induction to the magnetic intensity. It is a scalar quantity and denoted by the symbol μ. Magnetic permeability helps us measure a material’s resistance to the magnetic field or measure of the degree to which magnetic field can penetrate through a material.

If the material has greater magnetic permeability, greater will be the conductivity for magnetic lines of force.

### Factors Affecting Magnetic Permeability

Permeability also depends on several factors such as the nature of the material, humidity, position in the medium, temperature, and frequency of the applied force. Magnetic permeability is always positive and can vary with a magnetic field. Meanwhile, the opposite of magnetic permeability is magnetic reluctivity.

## Magnetic Permeability Formula

Magnetic permeability formula is given as;

Magnetic permeability (μ) = B/H

Where B = magnetic intensity and H = magnetising field.

The SI unit of magnetic permeability is henries per meter (H/m) or newtons per ampere squared (N⋅A−2).

## Types of Permeability

The different types of permeability include;

### Permeability of Free Space

Permeability of free space also known as the permeability of air or vacuum is represented by μ0=B0/H

The ratio of magnetic intensity in a vacuum and magnetising field.

### Permeability of Medium

The ratio of magnetic intensity in the medium and magnetising field.

It is expressed as;

μ = B/H

### Relative Permeability

Relative permeability is a dimensionless quantity. It is the ratio of two quantities with the same units, so relative permeability has no unit. Relative permeability of free space is 1.

Its expression is given as;

μr= μ/μm

Relative permeability = (number of lines of magnetic induction per unit area in a material)/(number of lines per unit area in a vacuum)

## Magnetic Permeability Materials

Materials may be classified on the basis of their permeability as;

### Diamagnetic materials

Diamagnetic materials have a constant relative permeability slightly less than 1, that’s why magnetic flux density inside diamagnetic materials is slightly reduced. Diamagnetic materials are feebly repelled in external magnetic fields.

Example: Bismuth

### Paramagnetic Materials

Paramagnetic materials have a constant relative permeability slightly greater than 1, that’s why when a paramagnetic material placed in an external field it gets feebly magnetized in the direction of the magnetic field.

Example: Platinum

### Ferromagnetic Materials

Ferromagnetic materials do not have constant relative permeability.

Pure iron and many alloys have relative permeability greater than 100000, as the magnetising field increases relative permeability increases. That’s why ferromagnetic Materials have the strongest magnetic properties.

Example: Iron

## Relation Between Relative Permeability and Magnetic Susceptibility

The relation between magnetic susceptibility and relative permeability is described as;

χm = μr − 1

Lets us understand how we can establish or derive this equation.

First, we take some relevant equations.

B = μo(H+M) and M=XmH

Substituting the values, we get;

B = μo(H+XmH)

B = μoH(1+Xm)

So,

μH = μoH(1+Xm)

μ/μo = μr

Xm=1 – μr