IONIC, COVALENT and COORDINATE BONDS
The atoms combine by exchange of electron to become stable by attaining the nearest noble gas configuration (duplet or octet). The force that holds the two atoms together are known as bonds. Depending upon the way the electrons are exchanged between the atoms, there are three types of bonds as discussed below:
- IONIC BOND:- When the bond between atoms are formed by donating or accepting electrons, then the formed bonds are known as ionic bonds.
Few compounds having ionic bonds are NaCl, KOH etc.
- COVALENT BOND:- When the bond formed between two atoms is by sharing of electrons in order to attain their nearest noble gas configuration, then the bond is known as covalent bond.
Few molecules having covalent bonds are Cl2, CH4
- COORDINATE BOND:- This bond is little different from the other two bond in the manner that this bond can be formed between a molecule and an atom. This bond is formed by donating a pair of electron to the electron pair deficient atom, mostly H+. Both the electrons come from the same atom.
The given definitions can be better understood by following indicative examples:
|Element (atomic no.)||Electronic Configuration||How do they can combine|
|Na(11)||2,8,1||By losing one electron to attain octet configuration.|
|Cl(17)||2,8,7||By gaining 1 electron or sharing 1 electron to attain octet configuration|
|NH3||–||By donating a lone pair of electron present in Nitrogen(N) to a electron deficient atom|
|H+||0||By gaining two electron to attain its duplet configuration|
- Na & Cl will combine together to form ionic bonds in the following manner:
- The two ions attract each other due to different charge and the following reaction takes place forming an ionic bond between them:
- Two Cl atoms will combine together by sharing of electrons and they undergo following reaction forming a covalent bond:
- NH3 donates a pair of electron to H+ and the coordinate bond is formed with the following reaction:
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