What is Organic Chemistry?
Organic Chemistry is a division of chemistry that involves a scientific approach to structure, properties, and applications of organic molecules and compounds that are; it is a matter containing carbon in discrete forms. In general, it is a study of molecules comprising of carbon compounds with several numbers of other associated elements namely hydrogen, silicon, sulfur, oxygen, phosphorus, halogens, and nitrogen.
Study of structures involves regulating chemical constitution and composition of organic materials and compounds through numerous chemical and physical methods, whereas a study of properties involves evaluation of chemical reactivity to understand the behavior of organic matter in its purest forms, if possible in mixtures, fabricated forms and solutions as well. Initially, this branch of chemistry was finite to compounds that were produced by living organisms but now it has been widespread to incorporate man-made substances namely plastics.
Properties of Organic Compounds
Since the qualifying property to be an organic compound is to have a carbon atom, the amount of compounds falling under the category is quite vast. Thus isolating properties common to the group is quite difficult. Even though there are compounds containing carbon not belonging to organic compounds. Thus, the outlying factor to be an organic compound is actually to have a considerable amount of carbon atoms in the compound.
The physical property of an organic compound can be defined as a property that does not alter chemical characteristics of a compound. It consists of qualitative as well as quantitative qualities. Boiling point, melting point and index of refraction constitute quantitative data. Color, solubility, odor, and consistency constitutes to quantitative qualities.
- Melting Point: It is one of the vital physical properties of an organic compound. It usually indicates the temperature in which a state of a compound changes from solid to liquid state. The melting point of a pure crystalline is acute and it may melt over a slender range of temperature, that is if a temperature exceeds more than 0.5 – 1oC. There are few factors that could affect the melting point. Some are stated below.
- Size of a molecule: Melting Point identifies the characteristics of an organic compound. Suppose if 2 compounds consist of a variant structural arrangement of atoms or possess different configurations then there is a clear difference of melting point. If two samples possessing same melting point will have same configurations.
- Force of attraction between the molecules: Melting point of a compound is usually affected by the force of attraction between the molecules. The existence of hydrogen bonds in organic compounds will have a higher melting point.
- Boiling Point: It identifies the physical properties of organic compounds. It varies depending on the surrounding environment. A boiling point of a liquid is high at high pressure and have a lower boiling point when atmospheric pressure is low. There are several factors that would affect boiling point and they are stated below.
- Polarity: Greater the polarity than higher the boiling point, that is polarity determines the force of attraction between the molecules. Molecules are attracted by opposite charges in a polar compound.
- Carbon-carbon chain: Boiling point decreases with the increase in the length of a carbon-carbon chain.
- Strength of Intermolecular forces: Various effects such as Vander Waals dispersion hydrogen – bonding. Ionic bonding will affect the strength of intermolecular forces.
- Solubility: Organic compounds may dissolve in solvents like mixture, ethyl alcohol or white spirits.
Classification of Organic Compounds
They have been classified as follows:
Examples of Organic Compounds
Here are some examples of organic compounds:
- Ethanoic Acid/ Acetic Acid
Applications of Organic Chemistry
With applications in the field of medicine, textile, pesticides, petroleum and more, Organic chemistry is quite substantial our undertakings. Organic chemistry is applied in:
- Analysis: Organic chemistry is what enables us to analyze a substance to its elemental stage. To test a compound for impurities and processes like chromatography and more help us to completely analyze a substance.
- Synthesis: To synthesize naturally occurring substances in large quantities, organic chemistry enables us to recreate the required substance in quantities we need with various processes.
- For better molecules: with a proper understanding of the structure of a molecule, we can improve its performance in the way we require by fabricating a new molecule by altering its functional groups and chains.
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