Coordination compounds are a class of compounds that are also known as complex compounds due to the chemistry involved with them. Transition metals have this special property of forming coordination complexes due to high charge to mass ratio and availability of d-orbitals. The advances in coordination chemistry has provided various complex compounds that are used in different industries. Application of coordination compounds in different industries such as mining & metallurgy, medical sciences has been of great importance.
Examples and Types
Many of the biological compounds are coordination complexes. Some of the commonly known complex compounds found in nature are haemoglobin, chlorophyll, and vitamin B-12. There are numerous other coordination compounds that are produced and consumed by our body during many biological processes. Photosynthesis in plants requires chlorophyll for the process , chlorophyll is a magnesium-porphyrin complex. Many enzymes that catalyse the life processes within our body are coordination complexes, carboxypeptidase is one such coordination compound that acts as an enzyme and catalyses the process of digestion.
Coordination compounds have specific colours and hence are used in industries for intense colorations. Phthalocyanine is a class of coordination complexes that are vastly used in dyes and pigments industry to impart specific coloration to fabrics. Some of the cyanide complexes are used for electroplating a protective layer on surfaces. There are complexes that find application of coordination compounds in photography. EDTA is another complex compound that is used for the determination of hardness of water. Uses of coordination compounds also involve their application as catalysts. Application of coordination compounds in polymer industry is also becoming popular.
Application of coordination compounds in the extraction of metals from their ores has become more common these days. Extraction of nickel and cobalt involves uses of coordination compounds. These metals are extracted by hydro-metallurgical processes that require complex ions. Coordination compounds are also used to separate metals during extractive metallurgy as complex ions have this specific property of selective precipitation and solubility.
As more and more coordination compounds are getting synthesised, scientists and engineers are now having a wide range of options for improving and optimising the processes that require coordination compounds. Get in touch with our expert mentors at Byju’s for any further doubts.