All life on earth need sustenance to survive, furthermore, life has evolved various mechanisms that facilitate this transport of materials. Organisms like the sponge use the water currents to circulate water and nutrients throughout their body cavities, enabling the cells to exchange materials. More complex organisms such as humans have specialized systems that transport nutrients to the body and waste materials away from it.
Blood and lymph are the two most important body fluids in the human body. Blood comprises of red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets and plasma.
Here in these notes, students can find complete information about the blood, its components, composition, functions and types of circulatory systems.
Blood, also known as connective tissue, is responsible for transporting oxygen, nutrients, hormones, respiratory gases, to the body, and waste materials away from it. The total volume of the blood in the human body is approximately seven per cent of the total body’s weight which will be about 5 to 5.5 litres (1.5 gallons) of blood. Human blood comprises of 4 components that serve specific tasks, namely:
- Red Blood Cells.
- White Blood Cells.
Lymph is a colourless fluid present in the interstitial tissues. It circulates throughout the lymphatic system. It can be defined as blood without the RBCs. The exchange of nutrients, hormones, and gases occurs through this fluid. It consists of lymphocytes that play a major function in the immune responses of the body.
Human Circulatory System
The human circulatory system consists of four main organs, which function together and each of them has specific roles and functions that helps in smooth circulation of blood to different parts of the body. The vital circulatory system organs include:
- Blood Vessels.
- Lymphatic system.
Anatomically, humans have a closed circulatory system, meaning that the blood flows through closed loops, which is systematically pumped by the heart. The human heart is a four-chambered organ that is made up of a special kind of muscle called the cardiac muscle. This is rather unique as the cardiac muscle is highly resistant to tiredness and fatigue due to the large numbers of mitochondria present within it.
Important Question for Class 11, Chapter 18 – Body Fluids and Circulation
- What are the three types of circulation?
- What are the different components of blood?
- Is the human circulatory system open or closed?
- Write a few differences between hypertension and hypotension?
- Explain the structure of the human heart with a neat labelled diagram?
|NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 18|
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