Body Fluids and Circulation Class 11 Notes - Chapter 18

All life on earth need sustenance to survive, furthermore, life has evolved various mechanisms that facilitate this transport of materials. Organisms like the sponge use the water currents to circulate water and nutrients throughout their body cavities, enabling the cells to exchange materials. More complex organisms such as humans have specialized systems that transport nutrients to the body and waste materials away from it.

Blood

Blood, also known as connective tissue, is responsible for transporting oxygen and nutrients to the body, and waste materials away from it. Blood has 4 components that serve specific tasks, namely:

  1. Plasma
  2. Red Blood Cells
  3. White Blood Cells
    1. Eosinophil
    2. Basophil
    3. Neutrophil
    4. Lymphocytes
      1. T-Lymphocyte
      2. B-Lymphocytes
    5. Monocytes
  4. Platelets

The Heart

Anatomically, humans have a closed circulatory system, meaning that the blood flows through closed loops, which is systematically pumped by the heart. The human heart is a four-chambered organ that is made up of a special kind of muscle called the cardiac muscle. This is rather unique as the cardiac muscle is highly resistant to tiredness and fatigue due to the large numbers of mitochondria present within it.

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Practise This Question

A person suffering from kidney stones is advised to avoid excess intake of spinach and beet roots in his diet. What could be the possible reason?