Chemistry in Everyday Life Class 12 Notes - Chapter 16

The study of materials, as well as the evolution of new materials for the betterment of humanity, is called Chemistry. A drug is defined as a chemical agent which will affect human metabolism to cure the illness. If the intake of the dose is higher than the recommended dose, then it can be poisonous. Chemotherapy is the use of chemicals for therapeutic effect. Drugs interact with target molecules i.e biological macromolecules such as carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins. Drugs are designed in such a way that they interact with specific targets only to minimize the side effects. Releasing mental stress, destroying microbes/arresting microbes, preventing the body from infectious diseases, etc. is taken care by drug chemistry.

Some additives added to food to make it add nutritive value, palatable, and look attractive are sweetening agents, preservatives, flavors, antioxidants, nutritional supplements and edible colors.

  • Preservatives – It plays a vital role in preventing deterioration of food, protects against spoilage of food from yeast, mold, and other organisms that cause food poisoning. Also, increase the shelf life of food.
  • Flavors – Adding flavors to food helps to make them more palatable
  • Sweetening agents – Added in food such as alcoholic beverages, pickles, and bread for fermenting organisms that are important in making these food items.
  • Antioxidants – Vitamins C, E, carotenoids, etc. help protect damaged cells caused by free radicals. Some other naturally occurring antioxidant are ligands, flavonoids, phenols, and tannins.

Few Important Questions

  1. What is chemotherapy?
  2. What is food preservative? Give example.
  3. Which substance can be used as a disinfectant as well as an antiseptic.
  4. What is the name of the sweetening agent used to prepare sweets for a diabetic patient?
  5. Explain in detail the cleansing action of soap.
  6. What is cationic detergent? Explain with an example.
  7. Explain the term broad-spectrum antibiotics.
  8. Name the forces involved in holding the drugs to the active site on enzymes.

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CO+H2300C/300 atm X(catalyst) CH3OH 
The catalyst X is