Weather, Climate and Adaptations of Animals to Climate Class 7 Science Notes - Chapter 7

Weather

The atmospheric condition of a place on a daily basis with regards to aspects such as – humidity, the temperature, wind-temperature, rainfall, wind speed, etc., is referred to as the weather of that place.

  • The place’s humidity, temperature, and other factors are known as the elements of the weather.

Fronts and Weather Conditions

Weather is produced with the interaction of several factors that include:

  1. temperature or heat
  2. humidity or amount of water vapour in the air
  3. wind and atmospheric pressure.
  4. precipitation or the amount of rain
  5. cloudiness or the amount of cloud cover
  6. the visibility that is how far you can look into the horizon
  7. Wind and an atmospheric pressure

A weather front is a boundary separating two masses of air of different densities.

  •  The air masses separated by a front usually differ in temperature and humidity.
  •  The weather analysis usually includes information about the weather fronts also.

Climate

  • The average pattern of the weather recorded over a long time, say 25 years, is known as the climate of the place.
  • If the temperature at a place is high mostly, then we affirm that the climate of that place is hot.
  • If, on most of the days, there is heavy rainfall in the same place, then we affirm that the climate of that place is wet and hot.

Factors Affecting Climate

  • Different factors affect climates such as altitude, latitude, geography and topography.

Weather vs. Climate

  • Meteorologists record the weather every day.
  • The records of the weather have been preserved for the past several decades.
  • These help us to determine the weather pattern at a place.
  • The average of the weather pattern over a time period is determined as the climate.
Basis Climate Weather
Definition The average condition expected at a particular place in a given timeframe The atmospheric condition at a particular point of time
Projection carried out using the sum total of weather statistics over a time frame of 30 years carried out by collating data regarding meteorology such as solar radiation, air temperature, humidity, pressure, speed of wind and its direction
Underlying Factors The total of weather statistics of time frame of 30 years Periodic measurements of atmospheric pressure, rainfall, speed and direction of the wind, humidity overcasts and other unstable factors
Study-subject Climatology Meteorology
Ingredients comprises of elements like humidity, rainfall, sunlight, wind speed, natural phenomenon like fog, frost and so on in a particular time period comprises of weather elements such as overcasts, rainfall, floods, hailstorms, winds, heatwaves, snowfall and many more
Time frame Estimated over a longer time span Estimated over a shorter time span

Meteorology and Climatology

  • The major focus in meteorology is weather forecasting.
  • The daily weather reports are prepared by the Meteorological Department of the Government.
  • This department collects data on temperature, wind, etc., and makes the weather prediction.
  • Climatology is the study of climate, defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time.

Formation and Types of Clouds

  • Clouds form occurs via a phenomenon known as convection.
  • As sun rays heats the ground and the immediate air over it, the warm air tends to become lighter which is carried away along with the warm air upwards. As the air rises higher, the temperature falls causing the amount of water vapour that the air can hold to decrease.
  • This vapour condenses rapidly and soon clouds — made up of billions of minuscule water droplets or ice crystals — result.
  • Air that blows over mountains or hills is expelled upwards leading to the development of clouds. precipitation and clouds are often found on the windward side of a mountain.

Rain Gauge

  • Rainfall is measured by an instrument called the rain gauge.
  •  It is basically a measuring cylinder with a funnel on top to collect rainwater.

Thunderstorm

Thunderstorm

The Polar Regions

  • The polar regions manifest an extremely cold climate.
  • For most of the year, these areas are extremely cold, covered in snow
  • Sun does not set for six months and once set, does not rise for six months.
  • The temperature in winters can go as low as −37∘C.
  • North polar region is the Arctic region while the south polar region is Antarctic region.
  • Animals living at both these poles have adjusted to these harsh conditions.

The Tropical Rainforests

  • The tropical region has generally a hot climate because of its location around the equator.
  • In winter the temperatures are above 15∘C and during summers it may cross even 40∘C.
  • The climatic conditions in rainforests are highly suitable for supporting an enormous number and variety of animals and plants.

The Temperate Grasslands

  • Temperate grasslands are located north of the Tropic of Cancer (23.5 degrees North) and south of the Tropic of Capricorn (23.5 degrees South).
  • The major temperate grasslands include the veldts of Africa, the pampas of South America, the steppes of Eurasia, and the plains of North America.

Animal Adaptation

  • Based on different climatic conditions, animals adapt or evolve to survive in these conditions.
  • Eg: Polar regions – Polar bears have white fur hence are not visible easily in the snowy white background.
  • It safeguards them from their predators.
  • Also beneficial for them in catching their prey.
  • They are naturally provided with two thick layers of fur to shield them from extreme cold
  • Also, they possess a layer of fat under their skin.

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