General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements Class 12 Notes Chapter 6

According to the CBSE Syllabus 2023-24, this chapter has been removed from NCERT Class 12 Chemistry textbook.

Metals are essential for different purposes. Therefore extracting them from the mineral resource in a commercially feasible way is important. The minerals in which the metal is present and extracted are called ores. Usually, the ores contain impurities which can be removed to a certain limit in the concentration steps. After this step, the ore is chemically treated to obtain metals. With the help of reducing agents such as CO, carbon, etc., the metal compound is reduced to metal.

  • Step 1-The metal oxide reacts with a reducing agent;
  • Step 2 (a)-The oxide reduces to metal
  • Step 2 (b)-Oxidation of reducing agent

In the above reactions, the net Gibbs energy change is negative. This energy becomes more negative as temperature increases. Converting solid to gas or liquid and forming gaseous states favours a decrease in the Gibbs energy for the whole system. To get pure metals refining process is necessary. This process depends on the difference between metal properties and the impurities.

Few Important Questions

  1. How is nickel refined? Explain the method in detail.
  2. What matte is put in silica lined converter? Why?
  3. If given with two reducing agents viz CO and C, which is better for ZnO?
  4. Distinguish between pig iron and cast iron.
  5. What is Column chromatography? Explain
  6. What is Zone refining? Explain in detail.
Also Access 
NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 6
NCERT Exemplar for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 6

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For more information on Froth Floatation and a Recap of Benefaction, watch the below video

Other Important Links related to General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements from the CBSE syllabus:

Refining Differential Extraction Chromatography

Frequently Asked Questions on CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Notes Chapter 6 General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements


What is metal extraction?

The process of extracting metal ores buried deep underground is called Mining. The metal ores are found in the earth’s crust in varying abundance.


What is Gibbs free energy?

The Gibbs free energy is the available energy of a substance that can be used in a chemical transformation or reaction.


Which is the ore mostly found in India?

Iron ore


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