General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements Class 12 Notes - Chapter 6

Metals are essential for different purposes. Therefore extracting them from the mineral resource in a commercially feasible way is important. The minerals in which the metal is present and extracted are called ores. Usually, the ores contain impurities which can be removed to a certain limit in the concentration steps. After this step, the ore is chemically treated to obtain metals. With the help of reducing agents such as CO, carbon, etc. the metal compound is reduced to metal.

  • Step 1 – The metal oxide reacts with a reducing agent;
  • Step 2 (a) – The oxide reduces to metal
  • Step 2 (b) – Oxidation of reducing agent

In the above reactions, the net Gibbs energy change is negative. This energy becomes more negative as temperature increases. Converting solid to gas or liquid and forming gaseous states favors a decrease in the Gibbs energy for the whole system. To get pure metals refining process is necessary. This process depends on the difference metal properties and the impurities.

Few Important Questions

  1. How is nickel refined? Explain the method in detail.
  2. What is matte is put in silica lined converter? Why?
  3. If given with two reducing agents viz CO and C which is better for ZnO?
  4. Distinguish between pig iron and cast iron.
  5. What is Column chromatography? Explain
  6. What is Zone refining? Explain in detail.

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Artificial sweetner which is stable under cold conditions only is