Data Handling Class 6 Maths Notes - Chapter 9

How About a Holiday! Data and information

  • Data is a collection of numbers gathered to give some information.

Frequency

  • Frequency is the number of times a particular value occurs in a given data.
  • Eg : Marks scored by different students in a class: 1,2,2,4,3,3.
Marks Frequency
1 1
2 2
3 2
4 1

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Organised Data

  • Data should be organised properly.
  • This helps in extracting information.
  • Example: In a class, 20 students were asked to choose one fruit from Banana, Orange, Apple and Guava.
    The following shows organised data for the above information is given below.
Fruits No. of Students
Banana 8
Orange 3
Apple 5
Guava 4

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Prioritizing Data

  • Data can be prioritized or it can be organised in a particular order according to importance.
  • Example: Following are the names of students in a class: Anu, Shameer, Kiran, John. Prioritize the data according to alphabetic order. On prioritising the data, the new order of names become Anu, John, Kiran and Shammer.

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How to organise data?

  • Data can be organised in different ways. It can be organised in
    (i) Alphabetical order
    (ii) In ascending and descending order.
  • Example: Arrange the following data according to the birth year.
Ravi Shekhar Sunny Asha
1970 1988 1979 1920

Organised data:

Asha Ravi Sunny Shekhar
1920 1970 1979 1988

Scaling Factor

  • The large numbers cannot be represented in a bar graph, so the scaling factor is used to reduce or scale down large numbers.

Data Handling-1

Picture Perfect

Pictographs

  • The pictograph is a pictorial representation of data.
  • Here data is represented using images of the objects.

 

Interpretation of pictographs

The number of strawberries eaten by various people is shown below.

Data-Handling-3

Question. Find the number of apples eaten by Margaret, Susan, Maria
and Dorothy.
Solution: Here each symbol of strawberry represents two strawberries.

⇒ Margaret ate 8 strawberries, Susan ate 4 strawberries,
Maria ate 2 strawberries and Dorothy ate 12 strawberries.
So, the total number of strawberries eaten by all the four is
30.

Bar Pictures

Bar diagrams

  • The graphical representation of data using bars of uniform width drawn vertically or horizontally with different lengths is called as bar graphs/bar diagrams.
  • Bar diagrams consist of two axes: X-axis and Y-axis.
  • The following is a bar graph showing the birthday of students in a class.

Data-Handling-4

 

Interpretation of bar diagrams

  • Given below are the marks scored by students in mathematics. Calculate the sum of marks scored by A and C.

Data-Handling-5

 

Solution:

Students Marks Obtained
A 8
B 14
C 9
D 5

Sum of marks scored by A and C = 8 + 9 = 17
∴ The required sum is 17.

Collection of numbers gathered together to give some valuable information is called data. Pictograph shows numerical information by making use of icons or picture symbols to represent data sets. Pictograph can also be defined as a visual presentation of data using symbols, pictures, icons, etc. Below is an example of an interpretation of a pictograph-

Pictograph

Where,

Picture of one apple equals 20 apples sold

Picture of half apple equals 10 apples sold

What is the Bar graph?

A bar graph is also called a bar chart. It is used to represent data visually with the help of bars which are of different heights or lengths. The date graphed is either horizontally or vertically, to make it easy for the viewers to compare different values and therefore draw conclusions quickly.

Questions On Data Handling For Class 6

    1. The below table shows the number of bicycles manufactured by a factory during the years 2000 to 2004. Draw a bar graph by choosing a scale of your choice.
Year Bicycle manufactured
2000 600
2001 400
2002 700
2003 1000
2004 1300

Also, answer the following questions for the above bar graph –

    1. The maximum number of bicycles were manufactured in which year?
    2. The minimum number of bicycles were manufactured in which year?
    1. The below bar graph shows the amount of wheat purchased by the government in the year 1998 to 2002.
    1. Observe and mention the maximum wheat production is in which year?
    2. Observe and mention the minimum wheat production is in which year?
  1. The number of animals in of the five villages are as given – Village A: 70 Village B: 110 Village C: 50 Village D: 43 Village E: 80 Make a pictograph of these animals. Use one symbol to represent 10 animals. Answer the following
    1. Number of symbols that represent animals of village E?
    2. Name the village which has the maximum number of animals.
    3. Compare village A and C and tell which among those two has more animals?

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