Haloalkanes and Haloarenes Class 12 Notes

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    The replacement of hydrogen atoms in a hydrocarbon by halogen atoms results in the formation of haloalkane (alkyl halide) and haloarene (aryl halide). In Haloalkanes or alkyl halide, the halogen atoms are connected to the sp3 hybridized carbon atom of an alkyl group. In haloarenes or aryl halide, the halogen atoms are attached to the sp2 hybridized carbon atoms of an aryl group. Haloalkanes and haloarenes can be classified as polyhalogen (tetra-, tri-, etc.), mono or di compounds based on the total number of halogen atoms available in their structure. Haloalkanes are designated by the formula “R-X”, where R represents any substituted alkyl group. Some of the haloalkanes (containing bromine or chlorine) exhibit negative effects on the environment such as ozone layer depletion. The most commonly known family in this category is the CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons). Most of the students find haloalkanes and haloarenes as one of the most scoring units because it mostly talks about the basics. Most of time similar type of questions are generally asked from this unit with the only difference in the difficulty level.

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