Environmental Issues Class 12 Notes

With the increase in the human population, there is a lot of demand for food, clothing, housing, fuels, vehicles etc. All these demands are exerting a lot of pressure on land, water, air and other natural resources which leads to pollution, degradation of the environment, biodiversity, and other environmental issues.

What are Environmental Issues?

An environmental issue can be simply defined as any human activity that brings along with it many side effects. One feature of it could bring about development while the other side of the coin could be a detrimental effect. These unfavourable changes often lead to environmental issues that affect the natural balance of the environment.

Types of Environmental Issues

Listed below are the major causes of environmental issues

Pollution: Pollution is generally defined as an undesirable change in the biological, chemical-physical and composition of air, water, soil, and land. The agents responsible for the cause of pollutions are called as the pollutants. Different types of pollution are:

  • Air pollution.
  • Water pollution.
  • Sound pollution.
  • Soil Pollution.
  • Land Pollution.

Global Warming: Global Warming is caused by the gradual increase in the average temperature of the Earth’s atmosphere and its water bodies including oceans. Global warming is a serious environmental issue, which is caused by both natural and human influences.

Depletion of Natural Resource: It is a crucial current environmental problem caused by the consumption of fossil fuel that results in the emission of Greenhouse gases, which is mainly responsible for global warming and climate change.

Disposal of Solid Wastes: Many countries are producing an excessive amount of waste their garbage wastes and dumping in the freshwater bodies and polluting the water bodies and causing harm for both the environment and marine life.

Other causes of environmental issues include: Loss of Biodiversity, Deforestation, Ozone Layer Depletion, Public Health Issues, Effect on Marine Life, Increased Carbon Footprint, etc.

Few Important Questions

  • Define Eutrophication?
  • What is Biological magnification?
  • List out the causes and effects of global warming?
  • Explain the effects of sewage discharge on a river?
  • What are the effective measures taken to reduce environmental pollution?

Learn more about Environmental Issues from the topics given below:


Practise This Question

Which of the following is not an application of DNA fingerprinting?