Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants Class 12 Notes

Reproduction in plants involves both sexually and asexually. But the majority of the flowering plants reproduce sexually and flower plays an important role in the process of sexual reproduction. Hence, the flower is also called as the reproductive part of a plant. The complete flower typically consists of:

  • Sepals
  • Pedicel
  • Calyx
  • Petals
  • Stamen- the male reproductive part which consists of anther and filament.
  • Pistil – the female reproductive part which comprises of three parts- stigma, style, and ovary.

Sexual reproduction in Plants

Based on the presence of either stamen or pistil or both, a flower can be classified into unisexual or bisexual. Sexual reproduction in Flowering Plants divided it into three stages:


Pollinations is a process of transferring the pollen grains across the anther and the stigma of the same flower of a plant or to a flower of different plants for the process of fertilization and the production of seeds. The agents involved in the transferring the pollen grains are birds, wind, animals, and water. self-pollination and cross-pollination are two different types of pollination.

Formation of a Zygote

After the pollination, the male gamete is transferred down through the style of the pistil to the ovary and the male gamete are fused with female gamete to form a zygote.

Formation of Fruits and seeds

After the formation of a zygote, it is allowed to develop in an embryo. The ovules develop into seeds and ovary develops into a fruit.

Few Important Questions

  • What is pollination?
  • What is the function of the ovaries in a flowering plant?
  • What are the female and male reproductive parts of a flower called?

Learn more about reproduction and their types from the topics given below:

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