A number is defined as an arithmetical value expressed by a word, symbol, or figure. These numbers can be written in single digits, double digits, three digits in the generalized form.

**Types of Numbers**

A number system is a system of writing for expressing numbers. According to the number system, the different types of a number includes:

- Prime numbers
- Even numbers
- Odd numbers
- Whole numbers
- Natural numbers
- Composite numbers

#### For more information on Number Systems, watch the below video

To know more about Different Types of Numbers, visit here.

Lets us look into some solved example problems.

**Write all the factors of 65**

65 is a composite number.

65 = 1 × 65

5 x 13 = 65

Factors of 65: 1, 5, 13, 65.

**Find the common factors of 850 and 680**

The common factors of 850 and 680 are 2, 5 and 17.

## Facts about Factors and Multiples

**Factors**

A

factorof a number is an exact divisor of that number.

Example: 1, 2, 3, and 6 are the factors of 6.

#### For more information on Factors and Common Factors, watch the below video

**Properties of Factors**

**Properties of factors **of a number:

- 1 is a factor of every number.
- Every number is a factor of itself.
- Every factor of a number is an exact divisor of that number.
- Every factor is less than or equal to the given number.
- Number of factors of a given number are finite.

To know more about Factors and Mutiples, visit here.

**Perfect Numbers**

A number for which the sum of all its factors is equal to twice the number is called a

perfect number.

Example: Factors of 28 are 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28.

Here, 1 + 2 + 4 + 7 + 14 + 28 = 56 = 2 × 28

Therefore, the sum of factors of 28 is equal to twice the number 28.

To know more about Perfect Numbers, visit here.

**Multiples**

**Multiples** of a number are those numbers which we get by multiplying the number by any integer.

Example: Multiples of 3 are 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 etc.

**Properties of Multiples**

**Properties of multiples** of a number:

- Every multiple of a number is greater than or equal to that number.
- Number of multiples of a given number is infinite.
- Every number is a multiple of itself.

## Ones with the One and the Others

**Prime Numbers**

Numbers other than 1 whose only factors are 1 and the number itself are called

Prime numbers.

Example: 2, 3, 5, 7 etc.

#### For more information on Prime Numbers, watch the below video

To know more about Prime Numbers, visit here.

**Composite Numbers**

Numbers having more than two factors are called

Composite numbers.

Example: 4, 6, 8 etc.

To know more about Composite Numbers, visit here.

## Divisible by 2 or 5 or Both

**Divisibility Tests**

A **divisibility rule** is a method of determining whether a given integer is divisible by a fixed divisor without performing division, usually by examining its digits.

We have divisibility rules for 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11.

**Divisibility Tests for 2**

If one’s digit of a number is 0,2,4,6 or 8, then the number is divisible by 2.

Example: 12, 34, 56 and 78.

**Divisibility Tests for 4**

A number with 3 or more digits is divisible by 4 if the number formed by its last two digits (i.e. ones and tens) is divisible by 4.

Example: 1396 is divisible by 4 since its last two digits, i.e., 36 is divisible by 4.

**Divisibility Tests for 3**

A number is divisible by 3, if the sum of its digits is divisible by 3.

Example: Take 27.

Sum of its digits = 2+7= 9, which is divisible by 3.

Therefore, 27 is divisible by 3.

#### For more information on Divisibility Tests, watch the below video

**Divisibility Tests for 5**

If the one’s digit of a number is either 5 or 0, then it is divisible by 5.

Example: 75, 90, 100 and 125.

**Divisibility Tests for 8**

A number with 4 or more digits is divisible by 8, if the number formed by its last three digits is divisible by 8.

Example: 73512 is divisible by 8 since its last three digits, i.e., 512 is divisible by 8.

**Divisibility Tests for 6**

If a number is divisible by 2 and 3 both, then it is divisible by 6 also.

Example: 120 is divisible by 2 and 3. Therefore, it is divisible by 6 also.

**Divisibility Tests for 7**

Double the last digit and subtract it from the remaining leading cut number. If result is divisible by 7, then the original number is divisible by 7. Example: 826 is divisible by 7 since, 82 – (6 × 2) = 82 – 12 =70, which is divisible by 7.

**Divisibility Tests for 9**

A number is divisible by 9 if sum of its digits is divisible by 9.

Example: Consider 126.

Sum of its digits = 1+2+6 = 9, which is divisible by 9.

Therefore, 126 is divisible by 9.

**Divisibility Tests for 11**

Find difference between sum of digits at odd places (from the right) and sum of digits at even places (from the right) of a number. If the difference is either 0 or divisible by 11, then the number is divisible by 11.

Example: 1234321 is divisible by 11 since, (1+3+3+1) – (2+4+2) = 8 – 8 = 0, which is divisible by 11.

**Divisibility Tests for 10**

If one’s digit of a number is 0, then the number is divisible by 10.

Example: 10, 20, 30 and 40.

To know more about Divisibility Rules, visit here.

**Common Factors**

The factors of 4 are 1, 2 and 4.

The factors of 18 are 1, 2, 3, 6, 9 and 18.

The numbers 1 and 2 are **common factors** of both 4 and 18.

#### For more information on Common Factors, watch the below video

**Common multiples**

Multiples of 3 are 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18,….

Multiples of 5 are 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30,…

Multiples of 6 are 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36,…

Therefore, **common multiples** of 3, 5 and 6 are 30, 60,….

## The Prime Factor

**Prime Factorisation**

When a number is expressed as a product of prime numbers, factorisation is called

prime factorisation.

Example: Prime factorisation of 36 is 2×2×3×3.

To know more about Prime Factors, visit here.

**Learn more about the numbers from the topics given below:**

Real Numbers | Prime Numbers |

Whole Numbers | Natural Numbers |

## Frequently Asked Questions on CBSE Class 6 Maths Notes Chapter 3 Playing with Numbers

### What are prime numbers?

Prime numbers are numbers that have only 2 factors – 1 and the number itself.

### What is a divisibility test?

A divisibility test is an easy way of finding out whether a given integer is divisible by a fixed divisor without executing the division, usually by examining its digits

### What are ‘common factors’?

A common factor is a number that can be divided into two different numbers, without leaving a remainder.