They are of 2 types :
– Asexual Reproduction
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– Sexual Reproduction
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Production of new individuals from their parents is known as reproduction.
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The modes of reproduction in plants are:
Asexual Reproduction in Organisms
- In asexual reproduction, organisms can give rise to new organisms without fusion of gametes.
- Only one parent is involved.
- It is a type of asexual reproduction that takes place in unicellular organisms like amoeba, paramecium etc.
- A single parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.
- There are two types:
- Binary Fission: a single parent cell divides into two daughter cells. (e.g. amoeba, paramecium)
- Multiple Fission: a single parent cell divides into many daughter cells. (e.g. Plasmodium)
- Fragmentation is a form of asexual reproduction or cloning, in which an organism is split into fragments.
- Each of these fragments develop into a mature fully grown individual that are clones of the original organism.
- Eg: sponges and lichens reproduce through fragmentation.
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- Budding is a form of asexual reproduction in which a new organism develops from an outgrowth or bud due to cell division at one particular site of the parent organism.
- They eventually break away from the parent. Eg: hydra, yeast
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- The term is also used to refer to the process of reproduction via spores.
- spores are the reproductive bodies and are microscopic.
- When these spores are released into the surrounding area, they develop into new plants under favourable conditions.
- E.g. Fungi, Ferns
- It is a type of asexual reproduction in which new plants are produced from roots, stems, leaves and buds. Eg: rose, Bryophyllum
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Reproduction in Plants
Sexual Reproduction in Plants
- Sexual reproduction in plants occurs through the fusion of gametes, which eventually gives rise to seeds that develop into the new plant.
- Flowers are the parts of the plant involved in sexual reproduction.
- The male gamete i.e. pollen grains are produced by anthers while the female gamete i.e. ovule is produced by pistils.
- The male and female gametes meet due to pollination, fuse by fertilization and give rise to a new plant by fruit and seed formation.
For More Information On Plant Reproduction, Watch The Below Video:
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- Pollination is the act of transferring pollen grains from the male part of the flower i.e. anthers to the female part of the flower i.e. stigma.
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Types of Pollination
There are two types of pollination:
- If the pollen happens to land on the stigma of the same flower it is called self-pollination.
- When the pollen of a flower lands on the stigma of another flower of the same plant, or that of a different plant of the same kind, it is called cross-pollination.
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- In sexual reproduction a male and a female gamete fuse to form a zygote.
- So in case of plants, the male gametes present in the pollen grains fuse with the female gamete i.e. egg.
- This fusion is called as fertilization and the cell formed out of the fusion is called as a zygote.
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Fertilization is the phenomena of fusion of the male gamete with the female gamete cell.
- The zygote further develops to form the embryo.
- In animals, the embryo grows into an adult.
- In Plants, the embryo further gives rise to shoot system and root system.
Fruits and Seed Formation
- In plants, post fertilisation, the ovary develops into a fruit and other parts of the flower fall off.
- The ripened ovary forms the fruit.
- The ovules form the seeds.
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- Seeds and fruits of plants are dispersed away by wind, water and animals.
- The seeds show different characteristics depending on their dispersing agent.
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- Seeds are winged and light to get carried by the wind. eg: maple and drumstick.
- Hairy seeds, eg: aak (Madar) and hairy fruit of sunflower.
- These seeds or fruits normally develop the ability of floating in the form of fibrous or spongy outer coat, eg: coconut.
- Spiny seeds with hooks that are attached to the animal body and are hence carried to distant places. Eg: Xanthium, Urena
Few of the seeds disperse when the fruits burst out with a sudden jerk, which gets scattered away to a distance far from the parent plant. Eg: Balsam and Castor.