Before the discovery of transistor, devices such as vacuum diode were used to control the flow of electrons in a circuit. But these devices were bulky, consumed high power, operated at high voltages and had limited life and low reliability. In the 1930’s it was realised that come solid state semiconductors and their junction offered the possibility of controlling the flow of charge carriers through them. This led to the development of the modern solid-state semiconductors. They consume low power, are small in size, operate at low voltages and have a long life and high reliability. In this chapter, we study the following concepts:
- Basic concepts of semiconductor physics
- Semiconductor devices such as bipolar junction transistor and junction diodes.
- Applications of semiconductors