NCERT Solutions For Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 2

NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry Structure of Atom

NCERT solutions for class 11 Chemistry chapter 2 Structure of Atom includes solutions for all the questions provided in class 11 chemistry NCERT textbook. Students can practice various questions on the structure of an atom and prepare for their finals. NCERT solutions for class 11 Chemistry chapter 2 provides different examples followed by the solved exercise for the student benefits. These study materials include both objective and long and short type of questions related to this topic and are solved by the subject experts. Students can find detailed information about the NCERT solutions for class 11 Chemistry chapter 2 pdf files by visiting BYJU’S.

Q.1. (a)Figure the quantity of electrons which will together measure one gram.

(b)Compute the mass and charge of one mole of electrons.

Ans:

(a)Mass of one electron =9.10939×1031kg

Quantity of electrons that measure 9.10939×1031kg=1

Quantity of electrons that will measure 1 g (1×103kg)

=19.10939×1031kg×(1×103kg)=0.1098×103+31=0.1098×1028=1.098×1027

(b)Mass of one electron =9.10939×1031kg

Mass of one mole of electron =(6.022×1023)×(9.10939×1031kg)=5.48×107kg

Charge on one electron =1.6022×1019coulomb

Charge on one mole of electron =(1.6022×1019C)(6.022×1023)=9.65×104C

 

Q.2. (I)Figure the aggregate number of electrons present in one mole of methane.

(II)Discover (a) the aggregate number and (b) the aggregate mass of neutrons in 7 mg of 14C.

(Assume that mass of a neutron=1.675×1027kg).

(III)Discover (a) the aggregate number and (b) the aggregate mass of protons in 34 mg of NH3 at STP.

Will the appropriate response change if the temperature and weight are changed?

Ans:

(I)Number of electrons present in 1 molecule of methane (CH4)

1(6)+4(1)=10

Number of electrons present in 1 mole i.e., 6.023×1023 molecules of methane

=6.022×1023×10=6.022×1024

(II)(a) Number of atoms of 14C in 1 mole=6.023×1023

Since 1 atom of 14C contains (14 – 6) i.e., 8 neutrons, the number of neutrons in 14 g of 14C is (6.023×1023)×8.Or, 14 g of 14C contains (6.023×1023×8)neutrons.

Number of neutrons in 7 mg

6.022×1023×8×7mg1400mg=2.4092×1021

 

(b)The aggregate mass of one neutron= 1.67493×1027kg

The aggregate mass of total neutrons in 7 g of 14C

=(2.4092×1021)(1.67493×1027kg)=4.0352×106kg

(III)(a)1 mole of NH3=1(14)+3(1)gofNH3=17gofNH3=6.022×1023moleculesofNH3

Total number of protons present in 1 molecule of NH3

=1(7)+3(1)=10

Number of protons in 6.023×1023moleculesofNH3

=(6.023×1023)(10)=6.023×102417gofNH3 contains (6.023×1024) protons. Number of protons in 34 mg of NH3

6.022×1024×34mg17000mg=1.2046×1022

(b)Mass of one proton = 1.67493×1027kg

Total mass of protons in 34 mg of NH3

=(1.67493×1027kg)(1.2046×1022)=2.0176×105kg

The quantity of protons, electrons, and neutrons in a particle is free of temperature what’s more, weight conditions. Subsequently, the acquired qualities will stay unaltered if the temperature and weight is changed.

 

Q.3.What number of neutrons and protons are there in the following nuclei ?

136C,168O,2412Mg,5616Fe,8838Sr

Ans:

136C:

Atomic mass = 13

Atomic number = Number of protons = 6

Number of neutrons = (Atomic mass) – (Atomic number) = 13 – 6 = 7

168O:

Atomic mass = 16

Atomic number = 8

Number of protons = 8

Number of neutrons = (Atomic mass) – (Atomic number) = 16 – 8 = 8

2412Mg:

Atomic mass = 24

Atomic number = Number of protons = 12

Number of neutrons = (Atomic mass) – (Atomic number) = 24 – 12 = 12

5616Fe:

Atomic mass = 56

Atomic number = Number of protons = 26

Number of neutrons = (Atomic mass) – (Atomic number) = 56 – 26 = 30

8838Sr:

Atomic mass = 88

Atomic number = Number of protons = 38

Number of neutrons = (Atomic mass) – (Atomic number) = 88 – 38 = 50

 

Q.4. Compose the total image for the atom with the given nuclear number (Z) and Atomic mass (A)

(I)Z = 17, A = 35

(II)Z = 92, A = 233

(III)Z = 4, A = 9

Ans:

(I)3517C

(II)23392U

(III)94Be

 

Q.5.Yellow light radiated from a sodium light has a wavelength (λ) of 580 nm. Ascertain the frequency (ν) and wave number (ν¯ ) of the yellow light.

Ans: From the expression,

λ=cν

We get,

ν=cλ      ……….(1)

Where , ν= frequency of yellow light

c = velocity of light in vacuum = 3×108m/s

λ= = wavelength of yellow light = 580 nm = 580×109m/s

Substituting the values in expression (1):

ν=3×108580×109=5.17×1014s1

Thus, frequency of yellow light emitted from the sodium lamp =

5.17×1014s1

Wave number of yellow light ν¯=1λ

=1580×109=1.72×106m1

 

Q.6.Find energy of each of the photons which

(I)Correspond to light of frequency 3×1015Hz.

(II)Have wavelength of 0.50 armstrong.

Ans:

(I)Energy (E) of a photon is given by the expression,

E= hν

Where, h = Planck’s constant = 6.626×1034Js

ν = frequency of light = 3×1015Hz

Substituting the values in the given expression of E:

E=(6.626×1034)(3×1015)E=1.988×1018J

(II) Energy (E) of a photon having wavelength (λ) is given by the expression,

E= hcν

h = Planck’s constant = 6.626×1034Js

c = velocity of light in vacuum = 3×108m/s

Substituting the values in the given expression of E:

E=(6.626×1034)(3×108)0.50×1010=3.976×1015JE=3.98×1015J

 

Q.7.Calculate the wavelength, frequency and wave number of a light wave whose period is 2.0×1010s

Ans: Frequency (ν) of light = 1Period

1Period=12.0×1010s=5.0×109s1

Wavelength(λ) of light=cν

Where,

c = velocity of light in vacuum =3×108m/s

Substituting the value in the given expression of λ:

λ=3×1085.0×109=6.0×102m

Wave number (ν¯) of light = 1λ=16.0×102=1.66×101m1=16.66m

 

Q.8.What is the quantity of photons of light with a wavelength of 4000 pm that give 1 J of energy?

Ans: Energy (E) of a photon = hν

Energy (En) of ‘n’ photons =nhν

n=Enλhc

Where, λ= wavelength of light = 4000 pm = 4000×1012m

c = velocity of light in vacuum =3×108m/s

h = Planck’s constant = 6.626×1034Js

Substituting the values in the given expression of n:

n=1×(4000×1012)(6.626×1034)(3×108)=2.012×1016

Hence, the number of photons with a wavelength of 4000 pm and energy of 1 J are 2.012×1016

 

Q.9. A photon of wavelength 4×107m strikes on metal surface, the work function of the metal being 2.13 eV. Calculate

(I)the energy of the photon (eV),

(II)the kinetic energy of the emission, and

(III)the velocity of the photoelectron (1 eV= 1.6020×1019J)

Ans: Energy (E) of a photon = hν=hcλ

Where, h = Planck’s constant =6.626×1034Js

c = velocity of light in vacuum =3×108m/s

λ= wavelength of photon =4×107m/s

Substituting the values in the given expression of E:

E=(6.626×1034)(3×108)4×107=4.9695×1019J

Hence, the energy of the photon is 4.97×1019J

(II) The kinetic energy of emission Ek is given by

=hνhν0=(EW)eV=(4.9695×10191.6020×1019)eV2.13eV=(3.10202.13)eV=0.9720eV

Hence, the kinetic energy of emission is 0.97 eV.

(III)The velocity of a photoelectron (v) can be calculated by the expression,

12mv2=hνhν0v=2(hνhν0)m

Where (hνhν0) is the kinetic energy of emission in Joules and ‘m’ is the mass of the photoelectron.

Substituting the values in the given expression of v:

v=2×(0.9720×1.6020×1019)J9.10939×1031kg=0.3418×1012m2s2v=5.84×105ms1

Hence, the velocity of the photoelectron is 5.84×105ms1

 

Q.10.Electromagnetic radiation of wavelength 242 nm is just sufficient to ionise the sodium atom. Calculate the ionisation energy of sodium in kJ mol1.

Ans: Energy of sodium (E)= NAhcλ=(6.023×1023mol1)(6.626×1034)Js(3×108)ms1242×109m=4.947×105Jmol1=494.7×103Jmol1=494kJmol1

 

Q.11. A 25 watt bulb discharges monochromatic yellow light of wavelength of 0.57µm. Ascertain the rate of discharge of quanta every second.

Ans: Power of bulb, P = 25 Watt = 25Js1

Energy of one photon, E = hν=hcν

Substituting the values in the given expression of E:

E=(6.626×1034)(3×108)(0.57×106)=34.87×1020J

E= 34.87×1020J

Rate of emission of quanta per second= E=2534.87×1020=7.169×1019s1

 

Q.12. Electrons are discharged with zero speed from a metal surface when it is presented to radiation of wavelength 6800 Å. Figure limit recurrence (ν0 ) and work work (W0) of the metal.

Ans: Threshold wavelength of radiation (λ0)= 6800 Å=6800×1010m

Threshold frequency (ν0 ) of the metal

=cλ0=3×108ms16.8×107m=4.41×1014s1

Thus, the threshold frequency (ν0 ) of the metal = hν0=(6.626×1034Js)(4.41×1014s1)=2.922×1019J

 

Q.13. What is the wavelength of light transmitted when the electron in a hydrogen atom experiences move from an energy level with n = 4 to an energy level with n = 2?

Ans: The ni = 4 to nf = 2 transition will give rise to a spectral line of the Balmer series. The energy involved in the transition is given by the relation,

E=2.18×1018[1n2i1n2f]

Substituting the values in the given expression of E:

E=2.18×1018[142122]=2.18×1018[1416]=2.18×1018×(316)E=(4.0875×1019J)

The negative sign indicates the energy of emission.

Wavelength of light emitted (λ)=hcE

(Since E=hc lambda)

Substituting the values in the given expression of  lambda:

λ=(6.626×1034)(3×108)(4.0875×1019)=4.8631×107mλ=486.31×109m=486nm

 

Q.14. What amount of energy is required to ionize a H molecule if the electron involves n = 5 circle? Contrast your answer and the ionization enthalpy of H molecule (energy required to evacuate the electron from n =1 circle).

Ans: The expression of energy is given by,

En=(2.18×1018)Z2n2

Where,

Z= atomic number of the atom n

= principal quantum number

For ionization from nt=5 to n2=,

ΔE=EE5=[((2.18×1018J)(1)2()2)((2.18×1018J)(1)2(5)2)]=0.0872×1018JΔE=8.72×1020J

Hence, the energy required for ionization from n = 5 to n = ∞Energy required for n1 = 1 to n = ∞, is 8.72×1020m

 

 

ΔE=EE5=[((2.18×1018J)(1)2()2)((2.18×1018J)(1)2(1)2)]=2.18×1018JΔE=2.18×1018J

Hence, less energy is required to ionize an electron in the 5th orbital of hydrogen atom as compared to that in the ground state.

 

Q.15. When the excited electron of an H atom in n = 6 drops to the ground state, the following transitions are possible:

Hence, a total number of (5 + 4 + 3 + 2 + 1) 15 lines will be obtained in the emission spectrum.

The number of spectral lines produced when an electron in the n th level drops down to the ground state is given by

n(n1)2

Given, n = 6

Number of spectral lines =6(61)2=15

 

Q.16.(I) Energy associated with the fifth orbit of hydrogen atom is calculated as:

E5=(2.18×1018)(5)2=(2.18×1018)25=8.72×1020J

 

(II) Radius of Bohr’s n th orbit for hydrogen atom is given by, rn = (0.0529 nm) n 2

For, n = 5

r5=(0.0529nm)(52)r5=1.3225nm

 

Q.17. Calculate the wave number for the longest wavelength transition in the Balmer series of atomic hydrogen.

Ans. For the Balmer series, ni = 2. Thus, the expression of wavenumber(ν¯) is given by,

ν¯=[1(2)21n2f](1.097×107m1)

Wave number(ν¯)  is inversely proportional to wavelength of transition. Hence, for the longest wavelength transition, (ν¯) has to be the smallest.

For  (ν¯)   to be minimum, nf should be minimum.

For the Balmer series, a transition from ni = 2 to nf = 3 is allowed.

Hence, taking nf = 3, we get:

ν¯=(1.097×107)[1(2)2132]ν¯=(1.097×107)[1419]=(1.097×107)[9436]=(1.097×107)[536]ν¯=1.5236×106m1

 

Q.18. What is the energy in joules, required to shift the electron of the hydrogen atom from the first Bohr orbit to the fifth Bohr orbit and what is the wavelength of the light emitted when the electron returns to the ground state?

The ground state electron energy is –2.18 × 10–11 ergs.

Ans. Energy (E) of the nth Bohr orbit of an atom is given by,

E5=(2.18×1018)Z2(n)2

Where, Z = atomic number of the atom

Ground state energy =2.18×1011ergs=2.18×1011×107J=2.18×1018J

Energy required to shift the electron from n = 1 to n = 5 is given as:

ΔE=E5E1=[((2.18×1018J)(1)2(5)2)(2.18×1018)]=(2.18×1018)[1125]=(2.18×1018)[2425]=2.0928×1018J

Wavelength of emitted light=

hcE E=(6.626×1034)(3×108)(2.0928×1018)=9.498×108m

 

Q.19. The electron energy in hydrogen atom is given by En =2.18×1018,n2J. Calculate the energy required to remove an electron completely from the n = 2 orbit. What is the longest wavelength of light in cm that can be used to cause this transition?

Ans. En=(2.18×1018)(n)2J

Energy required for ionization from n = 2 is given by,

ΔE=EE2=[((2.18×1018()2)((2.18×1018)(2)2)]J=[(2.18×1018)40]J=0.545×1018J ΔE=5.45×1019J λ=hcΔE

Here, λ is the longest wavelength causing the transition.

E=(6.626×1034)(3×108)(0.57×106)=34.87×1020J E=(6.626×1034)(3×108)(5.45×1019)=3.647×107m=3647×1010

= 3647 Å

 

Q.20. Calculate the wavelength of an electron moving with a velocity of 2.05×107ms1

Ans. According to de Broglie’s equation,

λ=hmv

Where, λ = wavelength of moving particle

m = mass of particle

v = velocity of particle

h = Planck’s constant

Substituting the values in the expression of λ:

λ=(6.626×1034)Js(9.10939×1031kg)(2.05×107ms1)=3.548×1011m

Hence, the wavelength of the electron moving with a velocity of 2.05×107ms1is3.548×1011m

 

Q.21. The mass of an electron is 9.1×1031kg. If its K.E. is 3.0×1025J, calculate its wavelength.

Ans. From de Broglie’s equation,

λ=hmv

Given, Kinetic energy (K.E) of the electron = 3.0×1025J

Since K.E.= 12mv2

Velocity(v)=2K.Em=2(3.0×1025J)9.10939×1031kg=6.5866×104v=811.579ms1

Substituting the value in the expression of λ:

λ=(6.626×1034)Js(9.10939×1031kg)(811.579ms1)=8.9625×107m

 

Q.22. (I)Write the electronic configurations of the following ions:

(a)H

(b)Na+

(c)O2–

(d)F –

(II) What are the atomic numbers of elements whose outermost electrons are represented by

(a)3s1

(b)2p3 and

(c)3p5?

(III) Which atoms are indicated by the following configurations?

(a)[He] 2s1

(b)[Ne] 3s2 3p3

(c)[Ar] 4s2 3d1 .

Ans:

(I)(a)H  ion

The electronic configuration of H atom is 1s1 .

A negative charge on the species indicates the gain of an electron by it.

Electronic configuration of H = 1s2

 

(b)Naion

The electronic configuration of Na atom is 1s2 2s2p6 3s1 .

A positive charge on the species indicates the loss of an electron by it.

Electronic configuration of Na+ = 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s0 or 1s2 2s2 2p6

(c)O2– ion

The electronic configuration of 0 atom is 1s 2 2s 2 2p 4 .

A dinegative charge on the species indicates that two electrons are gained by it. Electronic configuration of O2– ion = 1s 2 2s 6

(d)F – ion

The electronic configuration of F atom is 1s 2 2s 2 2p 5 .

A negative charge on the species indicates the gain of an electron by it.

Electron configuration of F ion = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6

(II) (a)3s1

Completing the electron configuration of the element as 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 1 . Number of electrons present in the atom of the element = 2 + 2 + 6 + 1 = 11 Atomic number of the element = 11

(b)2p 3

Completing the electron configuration of the element as 1s 2 2s 2 2p 3 .

Number of electrons present in the atom of the element = 2 + 2 + 3 = 7

Atomic number of the element = 7

(c)3p 5

Completing the electron configuration of the element as 1s 2 2s 2 2p 5 .

Number of electrons present in the atom of the element = 2 + 2 + 5 = 9

Atomic number of the element = 9

(III)(a)[He] 2s 1

The electronic configuration of the element is [He] 2s 1 = 1s 2 2s 1 .

Atomic number of the element = 3

Hence, the element with the electronic configuration [He] 2s 1 is lithium (Li).

(b)[Ne] 3s 2 3p3

The electronic configuration of the element is [Ne] 3s 2 3p 3= 1s 2s 2 2p 6 3s 3p 3 . Atomic number of the element = 15

Hence, the element with the electronic configuration [Ne] 3s 2 3p 3 is phosphorus (P).

(c)[Ar] 4s 2 3d1

The electronic configuration of the element is [Ar] 4s 2 3d 1= 1s 2 2s 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 3d 1 .

Atomic number of the element = 21

Hence, the element with the electronic configuration [Ar] 4s 2 3d 1 is scandium (Sc).

 

Q.23. What is the most reduced estimation of n that permits g orbitals to exist?

Ans. For g-orbitals, l = 4.

With respect to any value “n” of principal quantum number, the Azimuthal quantum number (l) can have a value from zero to (n – 1).

For l = 4, least value of n = 5.

 

Q.24. An electron is in one of the 3d orbitals. Give the possible values of nl, l and ml for this electron.

Ans: For the 3d orbital:

Principal quantum number (n) = 3

Azimuthal quantum number (l) = 2

Magnetic quantum number (ml) = – 2, – 1, 0, 1, 2

 

Q.25.An atom of an element contains 29 electrons and 35 neutrons. Deduce

(i)The number of protons and

(ii)The electronic configuration of the element.

Ans:

(i)For an atom to be neutral, the number of protons is equal to the number of electrons.

Number of protons in the atom of the given element = 29

(ii)The electronic configuration of the atom is 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 .

 

Q.26.Give the number of electrons in the species , H2+ and H2 and O2+

Ans: Number of electrons present in hydrogen molecule (H2+) = 1 + 1 = 2

Number of electrons in = 2 – 1 = 1

H2: Number of electrons in H2 = 1 + 1 = 2

O2+:Number of electrons present in oxygen molecule (O2) = 8 + 8 = 16

Number of electrons in = 16 – 1 = 15

 

Q.27. (I)An atomic orbital has n = 3. What are the possible values of l and ml ?

(II)List the quantum numbers (mand l) of electrons for 3d orbital.

(III) Which of the following orbitals are possible? 1p, 2s, 2p and 3f

Ans.

(I)n = 3 (Given)

For a given value of n, l can have values from 0 to (n – 1).

For n = 3

l = 0, 1, 2

For a given value of l, ml can have (2l + 1) values.

For l = 0, m = 0 l = 1, m = – 1, 0, 1 l = 2, m = – 2, – 1, 0, 1, 2

For n = 3

l = 0, 1, 2

m= 0

m1 = – 1, 0, 1

m2 = – 2, – 1, 0, 1, 2

(II)For 3d orbital, l = 2.

For a given value of l, ml can have (2l + 1) values i.e., 5 values.

For l = 2 m= – 2, – 1, 0, 1, 2

(III)Among the given orbitals only 2s and 2p are possible. 1p and 3f cannot exist. For p-orbital, l = 1.

For a given value of n, l can have values from zero to (n – 1).

For l is equal to 1, the minimum value of n is 2.

Similarly,

For f-orbital, l = 4.

For l = 4, the minimum value of n is 5.

Hence, 1p and 3f do not exist.

 

Q.28.Using s, p, d notations, describe the orbital with the following quantum numbers.

(a)n = 1, l = 0;

(b)n = 3; l =1

(c) n = 4; l = 2;

(d) n = 4; l =3.

Ans:

(a)n = 1, l = 0 (Given) The orbital is 1s.

(b)For n = 3 and l = 1 The orbital is 3p.

(c)For n = 4 and l = 2 The orbital is 4d.

(d)For n = 4 and l = 3 The orbital is 4f.

 

Q.29. Explain, giving reasons, which of the following sets of quantum numbers are not possible.

a) n = 0, l = 0, ml= 0, m=+12

b) n = 1, l = 0, ml= 0, m=-12

c) n = 1, l = 1, ml= 0, m=+12

d) n = 2, l = 0, ml= 1, m=-12

e) n = 3, l = 3, ml= -3, m=+12

f) n = 3, l = 0, ml= 1, m=+12

 

Ans.(a)The given set of quantum numbers is not possible because the value of the principal quantum number (n) cannot be zero.

(b)The given set of quantum numbers is possible.

(c)The given set of quantum numbers is not possible. For a given value of n, ‘l’ can have values from zero to (n – 1). For n = 1, l = 0 and not 1.

(d)The given set of quantum numbers is possible. (e) The given set of quantum numbers is not possible. For n = 3, l = 0 to (3 – 1) l = 0 to 2 i.e., 0, 1, 2

(f)The given set of quantum numbers is possible.

 

Q.30. How many electrons in an atom may have the following quantum numbers?

a) n = 4, m=-12

b)n = 3, l = 0

Ans.(a)Total number of electrons in an atom for a value of n = 2n 2

For n = 4,

Total number of electrons = 2 (4)2 = 32

The given element has a fully filled orbital as

1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 .

Hence, all the electrons are paired.

Number of electrons (having n = 4 and m=-12) = 16

(b)n = 3, l = 0 indicates that the electrons are present in the 3s orbital. Therefore, the number of electrons having n = 3 and l = 0 is 2.

 

Q.31. Show that the circumference of the Bohr orbit for the hydrogen atom is an integral multiple of the de Broglie wavelength associated with the electron revolving around the orbit.

Ans.Since a hydrogen atom has only one electron, according to Bohr’s postulate, the angular momentum of that electron is given by:

mvr=nh2π.(1)

Where, n = 1, 2, 3, …

According to de Broglie’s equation:

λ=hmvormv=hλ.(2) hrλ=nh2πor2πr=nλ..(3)

Since ‘2πr’ represents the circumference of the Bohr orbit (r), it is proved by equation (3) that the circumference of the Bohr orbit of the hydrogen atom is an integral multiple of de Broglie’s wavelength associated with the electron revolving around the orbit.

 

Q.32.What transition in the hydrogen spectrum would have the same wavelength as the Balmer transition n = 4 to n = 2 of Hespectrum?

Ans. For He+ ion, the wave number associated with the Balmer transition, n = 4 to n = 2 is given by:

ν¯=1λ=RZ2(1n211n22)

Where, n1 = 2 n2 = 4

Z = atomic number of helium

ν¯=1λ=R(2)2(14116)=4R(4116)ν¯=1λ=3R4λ=43R

According to the question, the desired transition for hydrogen will have the same wavelength as that of He+.

R(1)2[1n211n22]=3R4[1n211n22]=34.(1)

By hit and trail method, the equality given by equation (1) is true only when n1 = 1and n2 = 2.

The transition for n2 = 2 to n = 1 in hydrogen spectrum would have the same wavelength as Balmer transition n = 4 to n = 2 of He+ spectrum.

 

Q.33.Calculate the energy required for the process

He+(g)He2+(g)+e

The ionization energy for the H atom in the ground state is 2.18×1018Jatom1

Ans. Energy associated with hydrogen-like species is given by,

En=2.18×1018(Z2n2)J

For ground state of hydrogen atom,

ΔE=EE1=0[(2.18×1018(1)2(1)2]JΔE=2.18×1018J

For the given process,

He+(g)He2+(g)+e

An electron is removed from n = 1 to n = ∞.

ΔE=EE1=0[(2.18×1018(2)2(1)2]JΔE=8.72×1018J.

The energy required for the process 8.72×1018J.

 

Q.34. If the diameter of a carbon atom is 0.15 nm, calculate the number of carbon atoms which can be placed side by side in a straight line across length of scale of length 20 cm long.

Ans. 1 m = 100 cm

1 cm = 10–2 m

Length of the scale = 20 cm

=20×102m

Diameter of a carbon atom = 0.15 nm

=0.15×109m

One carbon atom occupies 0.15×109m.

Number of carbon atoms that can be placed in a straight line 20×102m0.15×109m=133.33×107=1.33×109

 

Q.35. 2×108m atoms of carbon are arranged side by side. Calculate the radius of carbon atom if the length of this arrangement is 2.4 cm.

Ans. Length of the given arrangement = 2.4 cm

Number of carbon atoms present = 2 × 108

Diameter of carbon atom

2.4×102m2×108m=1.2×1010m

Radius of carbon atom=Diameter2=1.2×1010m2=6.0×1011m

 

Q.36.The diameter of zinc atom is 2.6Å.Calculate (a) radius of zinc atom in pm and (b) number of atoms present in a length of 1.6 cm if the zinc atoms are arranged side by side lengthwise.

Ans. (a)Radius of carbon atom= Diameter2=2.62=1.3×1010m=130×1012m=130pm

(b) )Length of the arrangement = 1.6 cm

=1.6×102m

Diameter of zinc atom =1.6×1010m

Number of zinc atoms present in the arrangement

=1.6×102m2.6×1010m=0.6153×108m=6.153×107

 

Q.37. The diameter of zinc atom is 2.6Å.Calculate (a) radius of zinc atom in pm and (b) number of atoms present in a length of 1.6 cm if the zinc atoms are arranged side by side lengthwise.

Ans.

(a)Radius of carbon atom= Diameter2=2.62