According to the CBSE Syllabus 2023-24, this chapter has been renumbered as Chapter 11.
Introduction to Class 10 Electricity
The Class 10 science chapter 12, ‘Electricity’, attempts to answer questions like what constitutes electricity, what are some of the factors that control or regulate the flow of electricity and how electricity flows in an electric circuit. The heating effects of electric current and its applications are also discussed in detail. In our attempts to understand the constitution of electric current atomic structure is discussed.
Chapter Summary Video
- An atom has a positively charged nucleus and negatively charged electrons revolving around it.
- Valence electrons in metals are free to move within the conductor and constitute an electric current.
The charge is an intrinsic property of matter by virtue of which it can exert electromagnetic force.
Conductors and Insulators
A substance which offers comparatively less opposition to the flow of current is known as a conductor, and substances which offer larger opposition are called insulators.
Some examples of conductors include copper, iron and steel. Some of examples of insulators include glass, dry wood and cotton.
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Electric Potential and Potential Difference
The electric potential at a point is defined as work done in bringing a unit positive charge from infinity to that point. The potential difference between two points is defined as the difference in electric potentials at the two given points. The electrons move only if there is a difference in electric pressure called the potential difference. One Volt is defined as energy consumption of one joule per electric charge of one coulomb.
Mathematically, electric potential between two points is given as:
where V is the potential difference, W is the work done, Q is the electric charge.
Flow of electric charges is called electric current, i.e, I = Q / t
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Models of Electric Current
Drift Velocity of Electron
It is the average velocity that an electron attains inside a metallic conductor due to the application of an electric field due to the potential difference.
Read More: Drift Velocity
Battery and Its Working
A cell is a source of potential difference, which is created inside it due to internal chemical reactions.
At anode: Cu(s)⇌Cu2+(aq)+2e−
At cathode: Ag(aq)+2e−⇌2Ag(s)
A combination of cells is called a battery.
Electric Circuit and Circuit Diagram
- A closed-loop path which a current takes is called an electric circuit.
- The representation of an electric circuit through symbols is called a circuit diagram.
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Resistance and Ohm’s Law
The current flowing through an ohmic conductor is directly proportional to the applied potential difference between the two ends of the conductor. Ohm’s Law states the relationship between the potential difference across a conductor and the current through it
For more information on Resistance and Ohm’s Law, watch the below video
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Resistance is a measure of the opposition offered to the current flow in an electric circuit. Resistance is measured in ohms. All materials resist current flow up to some degree. All materials fall into one of two broad categories: Conductors and Insulators.
Factors Affecting Resistance & How They Affect
- Directly proportional to the length of the conductor.
- Directly proportional to the nature of the conductor.
- Directly proportional to the temperature of the conductor.
- Inversely proportional to the cross-sectional area of the conductor.
Mathematically, this is represented as:
For more information on Factors Affecting Resistance, watch the below video
The electrical resistance offered by a substance of unit length and unit cross-sectional area is called resistivity.
Ohmic and Non-Ohmic Resistors
Resistors which follow Ohm’s Law are called Ohmic resistors, and those which do not follow it are called Non-Ohmic resistors.
Conductors which offer zero resistance to the flow of current are called superconductors. Prominent examples of superconductors include aluminium, niobium, magnesium diboride, and cuprates such as yttrium barium, copper oxide and iron pnictides.
Combination of Resistors
Combination of Resistors
- Two resistors are said to be combined in series if they carry the same current.
- Two resistors are said to be combined in parallel if the same potential difference is applied to them.
Equivalent Resistance of a System of Resistors
The equivalent resistance of two resistors is given as:
- In series, Req=R1+R2
- In parallel, 1/Req= 1/R1+ 1/R2
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EMF and Terminal Voltage
- EMF: The potential difference between the two terminals of a cell when there is no current flowing through the circuit.
- Terminal voltage: The potential difference between the two terminals of a cell when current is flowing through the circuit.
Electric Power and AC
Heating Effect of Current
- Heat (H) ∝ square of the current (I).
- H ∝ Resistance of the given circuit.
- H ∝ Time (t) for which current flows through the conductor.
When a potential difference is established, it causes electrons to move, i.e. flow of current.
Uses of Heating Effect of Electric Current
The heating effect of current is applied in the working of electrical heating appliances such as electric kettles, electric iron, room heaters, water heaters (geysers), etc.
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- The rate of doing work or the rate of consumption of electrical energy is called Electric Power. If W is work done in time t, then P=W/t.
- S.I. unit is Watt(W). One watt of power is consumed when 1 A of current flows at a potential difference of 1 V.
- The commercial unit of electrical energy is a kilowatt-hour (kWh).
- 1kWh = 3,600,000J = 3.6×106J
- Represented as P=I2R and P=V2/R.
- One kilowatt-hour is defined as the amount of energy consumed when 1kW of power is used for 1 hour.
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Frequently Asked Questions on CBSE Class 10 Physics Notes Chapter 12 Electricity
What is an electric circuit?
An electric circuit is a path for transmitting electric current. It is used in lamps, motors, computers and many other electronic devices.
What does ‘Ohm’s Law’ state?
Ohm’s Law states that the current through a conductor is proportional to the voltage across the conductor.
What is electric power?
The rate, per unit of time, at which electrical energy is transferred by an electric current is known as electric power.