Biotechnology and Its Applications Class 12 Notes

According to the CBSE Syllabus 2023-24, this chapter has been renumbered as Chapter 10.

Biotechnology is defined as the broad area of biology which uses both the technology and the application of living organisms and their components to develop, modify and produce a useful product for human welfare. The term ‘biotechnology’ was coined in the year 1919 by an agricultural engineer Karoly Ereky; hence he is called the Father of Biotechnology.

Let us have a look at some of the important applications of biotechnology.

Applications of Biotechnology

Biotechnology is widely used in different fields to modify and produce useful products for human benefit. These applications include:

Applications of Biotechnology in Agriculture

The application of Biotechnology in the field of agriculture is known as Green Biotechnology or Green Revolution. Biotechnology has contributed a lot to the field of agriculture, and they include:

  1. Organic agriculture
  2. Agro-chemical based agriculture
  3. Genetically engineered crop-based agriculture

The application of biotechnology has tripled the yield and the food supply. Apart from regular crop production, pest-resistant plants and genetically modified crops are introduced to increase food production and to feed the growing human population.

Genetically modified crops have their genes altered by inserting the genes with desired characteristics. Bt cotton, Bt brinjal, and golden rice are a few examples of Genetically modified crops.

Applications of Biotechnology in Medicine

The recombinant DNA technology has added to the advancements in the field of healthcare by permitting mass production of safe and more effective therapeutic drugs.

The drugs are mainly produced by the process of genetic engineering. Humulin, the genetically modified insulin that is used to treat diabetes, is produced through genetic engineering.

Biotechnology has developed gene therapy which helps in the removal of genetic disorders in the embryo. Other applications of biotechnology in the field of medicine and molecular diagnosis include:

  1. ELISA
  2. PCR

Transgenic Animals

Transgenic animals can be defined as those animals in which a new or altered gene has been experimentally inserted into the genome by genetic engineering techniques.

A few examples of transgenic animals are rats, rabbits, pigs, sheep, cows, fish, etc. Among all other transgenic animals, the mouse is the existing transgenic animal.

The main aim behind the creation of transgenic animals are:

  1. For the production of biological products.
  2. To study the different types of diseases.
  3. To study the contribution of genes in the development of the disease.
  4. For testing the safety of vaccines and toxicity of drugs before they are used on humans.
  5. To study how genes are regulated and how they affect the normal functioning of the body and its development.

Applications in Aquaculture

Biotechnology applications help in the improvement of the quality and quantity of fish. The gonadotropin-releasing hormone is introduced into the fish to enhance breeding. This helps in enhancing growth and improving their genetic characteristics. It also prevents a number of diseases.

Production of Antibiotics

Biotechnology helps in the production of vaccines, antibiotics and artificial hormones using plants. Genes with desired characteristics are introduced into the plants to manufacture the encoded proteins. Edible vaccines are cost-effective, and can be easily stored and administered in the body. These are used to cure diseases such as measles, hepatitis, cholera, etc.

Learn more about Biotechnology and its applications by registering at BYJU’S website.

Few Important Questions

  • What is gene therapy?
  • What are pest-resistant plants?
  • What are the advantages of golden rice?
  • What are transgenic animals? Explain with examples.
  • List out the applications of biotechnology in the field of medicine and healthcare.

Further Reading:

Gene Therapy BT Crops
Application Of Biotechnology In Medicine Biotechnology In Agriculture

Frequently Asked Questions on CBSE Class 12 Biology Notes Chapter 12 Biotechnology and Its Applications


What are the uses of biotechnology?

Biotechnology is particularly important in the field of medicine, where it facilitates the production of therapeutic proteins and other drugs.


What is GMO?

A genetically modified organism (GMO) is an organism in which the genetic material has been changed through biotechnology in a way that does not occur naturally by multiplication and/or natural recombination.


What is cloning?

Cloning is a technique scientists use to make exact genetic copies of living things.


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