Solutions Class 12 Notes - Chapter 2

A solution comprises of a solute and a solvent. It is defined as a homogeneous mixture of two or more than two substances. They can be classified into three types:

  • Solid solutions
  • Gaseous solutions
  • Liquid solutions

Molarity, mole fraction, percentages, and molality are the terms used to express the concentration of a solution.

Henry’s law

In liquids, the dissociation of gas is controlled by Henry’s law. The states that, the solubility of a gas in a liquid, at a given temperature, is directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas. Due to the presence of a non-volatile solute, the vapor pressure of the solvent is lowered.

Raoult’s Law

The lowering of the vapor pressure of the solvent is ruled by Raoult’s law. The law states that the relative lowering of the vapor pressure of the solvent over a solution and the mole fraction of a non-volatile solute present in the solution is equal. It is expressed as:

Ptotal= p10x1+p20x2

Ideal Solutions

When a solution obeys Raoult’s law over the entire range of concentrations it is called an ideal solution. Types of deviations from Raoult’s law:

  • Positive deviations
  • Negative deviations

Few Important Questions

  1. What is mole fraction?
  2. Explain the role of molecular interaction in a solution of water and alcohol?
  3. Give the statement of Henry’s law. List some applications.
  4. What is a solution? Explain the different types of solution.
  5. What is molarity?

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Practise This Question

Which of the following statement is true about interhalogen compounds?