Body Movements Class 6 notes - Chapter 8

Introduction to Body movements


The ability of organisms to change position, by using their body parts, is called movement.

Skeletal System


  • Skeleton is the internal structure in organisms, which helps in bringing about movement.
  • It forms a framework that gives the shape of the body and provides support to organisms.
  • The skeleton is made up of bones.
  • Different kinds of bones are joined to each other in a particular manner.
  • These joints facilitate various types of movements.
  • In higher animals, bones, muscles and cartilage together make the movement possible.


  • Muscles are parts of the body that help in bringing about movement.
  • Muscles may be attached to bones, (humans) or may work alone (earthworm).


  • Part of the skeleton that is not hard as bones and can be bent, is cartilage.
  • They are found in the upper part of the ear, the tip of the nose and at the tips of long bones.


  • Joints are the points where two parts of the skeleton are fitted together to make movement possible.
  • Examples are hip joint, elbow joint, knee joint, etc

Ball and Socket Joint

  • Ball and socket joint, where the rounded end of one bone fits into the cavity of the other bone.
  • It brings in movement in all directions.
  • It is seen in the hips and shoulders of the human body.

CBSE Class 6 Science Notes Chapter 8 - 1

Pivot Joint

  • A pivotal joint is where a cylindrical bone rotates in a ring.
  • It joins the neck to the head.
  • It allows to bend the head forward and backwards and turn the head to our left or right.

CBSE Class 6 Science Notes Chapter 8 - 2

Hinge Joints

  • Hinge joints bring about movement in only back and forth direction.
  • The knees and elbows have hinge joints.
  • The following image is a hinge joint in the elbow.

CBSE Class 6 Science Notes Chapter 8 - 3

Fixed Joints

  • Fixed joints are immovable joints because the bones are joined together.
  • Such joints are found in the skull.

Gaits of Animals

The different patterns of movement of animals due to the differences in their skeletal structure are called gaits of animals.


  • The earthworm does not have any internal skeleton.
  • The body is made up of many rings joined end to end and muscles attached to these rings help to extend and shorten the body.
  • The skin of earthworm also has a large number of tiny bristles that help it get a good grip on the ground.
  • Repeated extension and contraction of the body muscles, enable the earthworm to move through the soil.


  • Snails move with the help of their muscular, flat foot.
  • They glide along a solid surface which is lubricated with mucus.
  • This motion is powered by succeeding waves of muscular contractions of the foot.


  • The body of a cockroach is covered with a hard outer skeleton that is made of different units joined together.
  • It has three pairs of legs for walking and two pairs of wings attached to the breast for flying.
  • It has distinct muscles that are used for movement.
  • The muscles attached to the legs help in walking.
  • The breast muscles attached to the wings help in flying, although they are not good flyers.


  • Birds have a special skeletal and muscular structures that help them to fly.
  • The forelimbs are modified to become wings and the bones inside are hollow to suit flying.
  • The bones of the hind limbs are used for perching and walking.
  • The shoulder bones and breastbones are strong and support muscles of flight, which move the wings up and down.


  • Fishes have a streamlined body that helps them swim with least resistance.
  • They use tail fin for small jerks through water and other fins assist swimming.
  • The tail fin is also used for changing directions.


  • Snakes do not have legs for movement but use their long backbone along with muscles for movement.
  • Their body curves into many loops, which gives it a forward push by pressing against the ground.

CBSE Class 6 Science Notes Chapter 8 - 4

                                         A sand snake moving forward

Learn more about the Body movements, Bones, joints, and about the skeletal system from the topics given below:

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