Synthetic Fibres And Plastics Class 8 Notes

CBSE Class 8 Science Chapter 3 Notes: Synthetic Fibres And Plastics

Clothes that we wear on a daily basis are made of fabrics. Fabrics are made of fibres which are obtained from natural and artificial sources. Wool, silk, and cotton are a few examples of natural fibres and fibres like polyesters and terylene are a few examples of synthetic fibres. In class 8 science chapter 3, the various types of synthetic fibres along with their characteristics are mentioned.

Let’s Build


  • The clothes, which we wear are made of fabrics.
  • Fabrics are made from fibres obtained from natural or artificial sources.
  • Fibres are also used for making a large variety of household articles.

To know more about Fibre, visit here.


  • The word ‘polymer’ comes from two Greek words; poly meaning many and mer meaning part/unit.
  • A polymer is a substance composed of many repeated similar subunits.

To know more about Polymer, visit here.

Synthetic Fibre

  • Fibres that are made or created by humans are known as synthetic or man-made fibres.
  • Humans have been able to make a variety of synthetic fibres. Eg: rayon, nylon etc.

Synthetic Fibres and Plastics 1

To know more about Synthetic Fibre, visit here.

Natural Fibre

The naturally occurring fibres that humans derive from plants or animals are known as natural fibres. Eg: cotton, wool, silk, etc.
Synthetic Fibres and Plastics 2

For More Information On Synthetic and Natural Polymers, Watch The Below Videos:

To know more about Natural Fibres, visit here.

The Story of the Silkworm


  • Silk fibre is obtained from the cocoon of a silkworm. It takes 10 kg of the cocoon material to create 1kg of silk.
  • The process was discovered in China where it was kept as a closely guarded secret for a long time.
  • Silk is costly due to the material quality and production process involved. It is used in making sarees, ties, etc.

Synthetic Fibres and Plastics 3

To know more about Silk, visit here.

Raving about Rayon


  • Rayon is made from purified cellulose, which is chemically converted into a soluble compound.
  • Rayon comes from natural sources such as wood pulp but is considered as a man-made fiber. This is because rayon can be treated chemically.
  • When rayon is compared with silk, it is inexpensive but can be woven like silk fibres.

Synthetic Fibres and Plastics 4

For More Information On Rayon Fabric, Watch The Below Video:


  • Nylon is a synthetic fibre obtained from coal, water and air.
  • The first fully synthetic fibre obtained was nylon.
  • The characteristic properties are that it is light, strong, and elastic.
  • Nylon finds application in the manufacturing of socks, ropes, tents, car seat belts, sleeping bags, curtains etc.

To know more about Rayon and Nylon, visit here.

Pushy – Pull Polyesters


  • Polyester is made of repeating units of a chemical called an ester.
  • It is a crease free synthetic fibre.
  • It is best suited for the making of dress materials as it is crisp and is easy to wash.
  • A popular polyester is Terylene.

Synthetic Fibres and Plastics 5

To know more about uses of Polyester, visit here.

Fake Sheep – Acrylic

Acrylic Fibre

  • Acrylic is a synthetic fibre that resembles wool.
  • The wool obtained from natural sources is quite expensive, whereas clothes made from acrylic are relatively cheap.
  • Synthetic fibres are more durable and affordable which makes them more popular than natural fibres.

Plastic Attack Alert


  • Plastic is also a polymer like the synthetic fibre.
  • All plastics do not have the same type of arrangement of units. In some, it is linear whereas in others it is cross-linked.
  • Plastic can be recycled, reused, coloured, melted, rolled into sheets or made into wires. That is why it finds such a variety of uses.

To know more about Plastics, visit here.


Plastic, which gets deformed easily on heating and can be bent easily are known as thermoplastics. Eg: polythene and PVC

Thermosetting Plastics

Plastics, which when moulded once, can not be softened by heating. Eg: bakelite and melamine.

Characteristics of Plastics

– Plastic is non-reactive
– Plastic is light, strong and durable
– Plastic is a poor conductor

To know more about Properties of Plastics, visit here.

Biodegradable and Non-Biodegradable Materials

A material that decomposes through natural process is biodegradable and materials that are not easily decomposed by natural processes is termed as non-biodegradable.
Eg: Biodegradable – fruits, paper
Non Biodegradable – plastic, tin

To know more about Biodegradable and Non-Biodegradable Materials, visit here.

Environmental Effects on Plastic

  • Plastic takes several years to decompose, it is not environmental friendly.
  • It causes pollution.
  • The burning process in the synthetic material is quite slow and it does not get completely burnt easily.
  • It releases lots of poisonous fumes into the atmosphere causing air pollution in the process.

Synthetic Fibres and Plastics 6

To know more about Effects of Plastics, visit here.

Implement the 4 R principle in everyday life. Following are the 4Rs:

  • Reduce
  • Reuse
  • Recycle
  • Recover

These habits are environment-friendly.

Also Access 
NCERT Solutions for class 8 Science Chapter 3
NCERT Exemplar for class 8 Science Chapter 3

Learn more about synthetic fibres and plastics and other related topics including CBSE class 8 Science notes, at BYJU’S.

Also Read

Synthetic Fibre Plastics

Leave a Comment

Your Mobile number and Email id will not be published. Required fields are marked *




Free Class