CBSE notes of Class 7 Geography for Chapter 8 covers all the essential concepts mentioned in the chapter. These notes are valuable resources when students need to have a quick revision before the exam. We at BYJU’S have prepared CBSE Class 7 Geography notes for Chapter 8, which explains the topics mentioned in the chapter briefly. It will help them save their precious time to go through other study materials of Geography. Score well in the exam by referring to these notes written precisely.
CBSE Notes Class 7 Geography Chapter 8 – Human-Environment Interactions – The Tropical and the Subtropical Region PDF
Life in the Amazon Basin
The tropical region, which lies very close to the equator is referred to as the equatorial region. The place where a river flows into another body of water is called the river’s mouth. Numerous tributaries join the Amazon River to form the Amazon basin. The river basin drains portions of Brazil, parts of Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, Columbia and a small part of Venezuela.
The Amazon Basin stretches directly on the equator and is characterized by hot and wet climate throughout the year. The day temperatures are high with very high humidity. At night the temperature goes down but the humidity remains high.
The forests of Amazon are thick and dense that does not even allow the sunlight to reach the ground. Orchids, bromeliads grow as plant parasites. The rainforest is rich in fauna. Birds such as toucans, hummingbirds, bird of paradise, oversized bills, etc. Animals like monkeys, sloth and ant-eating tapirs are found here. Various species of reptiles and snakes also thrive in these jungles. Crocodiles, snakes, pythons, anaconda and boa constrictor are some of the species. Besides, the basin is home to thousands of species of insects. Several species of fish including the flesh-eating Piranha fish are also found in the river.
People of the Rainforests
People grow their food in small areas after clearing some trees in the forest. Men hunt and fish along the rivers and women take care of the crops. They mainly grow tapioca, pineapple and sweet potato. They practice “slash and burn agriculture”. The staple food is manioc, also known as cassava that grows under the ground like the potato. They also eat queen ants and egg sacs.
Cash crops like coffee, maize and cocoa are also grown. The rainforests provide a lot of wood for the houses. Some families live in thatched houses shaped like beehives. There are other large apartment-like houses called “Maloca” with a steeply slanting roof.
In the olden days, the heart of the forest could be reached only by navigating the river. In 1970 the Trans Amazon highway made all parts of the rainforest accessible. Aircraft and helicopters are also used for reaching various places.
The indigenous population settled in new areas where they continued to practice their distinctive way of farming. The developmental activities are leading to the gradual destruction of the biologically diverse rainforests. It is estimated that a large area of the rainforest has been disappearing annually in the Amazon basin.
Life in the Ganga – Brahmaputra Basin
The tributaries of rivers Ganga and Brahmaputra together form the Ganga-Brahmaputra basin in the Indian subcontinent. The basin lies in the sub-tropical region that is situated between 10°N to 30°N latitudes. The tributaries of the River Ganga like the Ghaghra, the Son, the Chambal, the Gandak, the Kosi and the tributaries of Brahmaputra drain it. The plains of the Ganga and the Brahmaputra, the mountains and the foothills of the Himalayas and the Sundarbans delta are the main features of this basin. Ox-bow lakes dot the plain area. The area is dominated by monsoon climate. The monsoon brings rains from mid-June to mid-September. The summers are hot and the winters cool.
The basin area has varied topography. The environment plays a dominant role in the distribution of the population. The mountain areas with steep slopes have inhospitable terrain. Therefore, less number of people live in the mountain area of the GangaBrahmaputra basin. The plain area provides the most suitable land for human habitation. Agriculture is the main occupation of the people, where flat land is available to grow crops. The density of the population of the plains is very high. The main crop is paddy. Since cultivation of paddy requires sufficient water, it is grown in the areas where the amount of rainfall is high.
Wheat, maize, sorghum, gram and millets are the other crops that are grown. Cash crops like sugarcane and jute are also grown. West Bengal and Assam are famous for tea plantations. Silk is produced through the cultivation of silkworms in parts of Bihar and Assam. Crops are grown on terraces in the mountains and hills. The vegetation cover of the area varies according to the type of landforms. In the Ganga and Brahmaputra plain tropical deciduous trees grow, along with teak, sal and peepal. Thick bamboo groves are common in the Brahmaputra plain. The delta area is covered with mangrove forests. In parts of Uttarakhand, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh, coniferous trees like pine, deodar and fir can be seen because the climate is cool and the slopes are steep.
Elephants, tigers, deer and monkeys are common. The one-horned rhinoceros is found in the Brahmaputra plain. In the delta area, Bengal tiger, crocodiles and alligator are found. Aquatic life abounds in the fresh river waters, the lakes and the Bay of Bengal Sea. The most popular varieties of the fish are the rohu, catla and hilsa. Fish and rice is the staple diet of the people living in the area.
The Ganga-Brahmaputra plain has several big towns and cities such as Allahabad, Kanpur, Varanasi, Lucknow, Patna and Kolkata all with a population of more than ten lakhs. The wastewater from these towns and industries is discharged into the rivers, which lead to the pollution of the rivers.
All four ways of transport are well developed in the Ganga-Brahmaputra basin. In the plain areas, the roadways and railways transport the people from one place to another. The waterways are an effective means of transport, particularly along the rivers.
Tourism is another important activity of the basin. Taj Mahal on the banks of River Yamuna in Agra, Allahabad on the confluence of the Rivers Ganga and Yamuna, Buddhists stupas in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, Lucknow with its Imambara, Assam with Kaziranga and Manas with wildlife sanctuaries and Arunachal Pradesh with a distinct tribal culture are some of the places worth a visit.