Hydrocarbons Class 11 Notes - Chapter 13

The compounds consisting of hydrogen and carbon only are called hydrocarbons. They are obtained from the major source of energy like petroleum and coal. Compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are the main sources of energy for the automobile industry, and domestic fuel is obtained from petroleum.

Classification Of Hydrocarbons –

Based on the structure hydrocarbons can be classified into 4 types:

  • Open chain saturated – alkanes
  • Unsaturated – Unsaturated hydrocarbons are defined as the hydrocarbons in which the carbon atoms are bonded to each other with two or three covalent bonds and also have the tendency to obtain more hydrogen atoms. Example alkynes and alkenes.
  • Cyclic – alicyclic
  • Aromatic – These hydrocarbons are defined as the cyclic hydrocarbons with alternate C-C and C=C as well as, are similar to the benzene ring in characters.

The major reactions of alkanes are oxidation, combustion, aromatization, and free radical substitution. Alkenes and alkynes undertake addition reaction, which is mainly electrophilic addition. Aromatic hydrocarbons, mainly undergo electrophilic substitution reaction. They experience addition reactions only under exceptional conditions.

Few Important Questions

  1. Benzene contains three double bonds and is extraordinarily stable. Why?
  2. How will you convert the hexane into benzene?
  3. Write chemical equations for the combustion reaction of Toluene and Butane.

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Practise This Question

A proton of mass 1.6×1027 kg goes round in a circular orbit of radius 0.10 m under a centripetal force of 4×1013N.  then the frequency of revolution of the proton is about