Biotechnology: Principles and Processes Class 12 Notes

What is Biotechnology?

Biotechnology is defined as the broad area of biology which uses both the technology and the application of living organisms and their components to develop, modify and to produce a useful product for human welfare. The term ‘Biotechnology’ was coined in the year 1919 by an agricultural engineer Karoly Ereky, hence he is called as the father of Biotechnology.

Principles of Biotechnology

According to the modern Biotechnology, the main principles of Biotechnology are:

  • Genetic engineering, which is used to alter the chemistry of genetic material (DNA/RNA), to introduce into another organism and thus changing the phenotype of the host organism.
  • Maintenance of sterile conditions to support the growth of large quantities of desired microbes and other eukaryotic cells which are used for the production of new or modified biotechnological products such as antibiotics, enzymes, vaccines, etc.

The techniques of genetic engineering mainly include:

  1. Creation of recombinant DNA,
  2. Use of gene cloning,
  3. To overcome the limitation of undesired genes,
  4. Multiplication of undesired genes along with the desired genes in traditional hybridization techniques,
  5. To isolate and introduce a set of desired genes into the target organism without the introduction of undesirable genes.

What is Recombinant DNA technology?

Recombinant DNA technology also called as Genetic Engineering. It mainly deals with the production of new combinations of genetic material-DNA or RNA in the laboratory artificially and introducing the recombinant DNA molecules into the host cells, where they can be propagated and multiplied.

The steps involved in the processes of Recombinant DNA technology are:

  1. Isolation of DNA,
  2. Fragmentation of DNA by restriction endonucleases,
  3. Isolation of desired DNA fragment,
  4. Ligation of the DNA fragment into a vector,
  5. Transferring the recombinant DNA into the host,
  6. Culturing the host cells in a medium and extraction of the desired product at a large scale.

Few Important Questions

  • What are Bioreactors?
  • What are Restriction enzymes?
  • List out the Tools of Recombinant DNA Technology?
  • What are the steps involved in recombinant DNA technology?
  • Distinguish between the Plasmid DNA and Chromosomal DNA?

Learn more about Biotechnology, its principles and its process from the topics given below:

Practise This Question

Geitonogamy is functionally cross pollination involving a pollinating agent while genetically it is similar to autogamy.