Reproductive Health Class 12 Notes

According to the CBSE Syllabus 2023-24, this chapter has been renumbered as Chapter 3.

What Is Reproductive Health?

Reproductive health is generally defined as the healthy and proper/normal functioning of all the reproductive organs covering all reproductive aspects.

One of the first countries in the world to launch action schemes and programmes regarding family planning was India, to accomplish total reproductive health as a social goal. It was initiated at a national level in the year 1951 to generate awareness regarding various aspects pertaining to reproduction by rendering facilities and support to establish a reproductively healthy society.

Students can refer to the short notes and MCQ questions along with separate solution pdf of this chapter for quick revision from the links below:

For the successful conduction of these schemes, both the governmental and non-governmental agencies have taken various steps to create awareness among the citizens about reproduction-related aspects and includes:

  • Awareness about family planning.
  • Introduction of Sex education in schools.
  • All printed materials were distributed to provide awareness.
  • Using Audio and Video on Powerpoint Slides on Reproductive Health.
  • Complete information about the reproductive organs, adolescence, safe and hygienic sexual practices, sexually transmitted diseases, birth control methods, care of mother and newborn child, etc.

Also see: Important Questions for Class 12 Chapter 4: Reproductive Health

Population Stabilization and Birth Control

  • An exponential rise in the population from the time of independence until May 2011 was contributed to factors such as a rapid decline in the death rate, the infant mortality rate(IMR), the maternal mortality rate(MMR) and a sharp rise in the reproducible age are deemed to the contributing factors.
  • The RCH(Reproductive Child Health) programme was effective only marginally in bringing down the population growth rate.
  • The government was forced to take up stern measures as a result of an alarming growth rate leading to a scarcity of basic requirements.
  • The measures to check the population growth rate, most importantly, is encouraging people to have smaller families through the use of various contraceptives. Some other measures were – familiarizing slogans(Hum do Hamare do), the statutory raising of marriageable ages of both males and females, incentives to couples with smaller families and so on.
  • Contraceptive methods have a broad range covering natural/traditional methods(periodic abstinence), IUDs, barriers(diaphragms, condoms, cervical caps, vaults), oral contraceptives(pills), implants, surgical methods(sterilization), injectables and so on.

Read More: Contraception

Medical Termination of Pregnancy(MTP)

  • MTP, or induced abortion, was legalized in India in 1971 with strict conditions to avoid any misuse. It refers to the voluntary or intentional termination of pregnancy before reaching the full term.
  • It is considered safe until the first trimester, after which increases the chances of being at a riskier place.


  • The state of being unable to produce offspring even after sexual intercourse is referred to as infertility which can be contributed to factors – congenital, physical, drugs, psychological, or immunological.
  • To assist such couples, there are specialized techniques – ART(Assisted Reproductive Technologies) which covers IVF(Invitro fertilization) and ET(Embryo Transfer).

Importance of Reproductive Health

  • Reproductive Health conveys complete awareness of various sexually transmitted diseases.
  • Provides accurate information about sexual life, reproduction, and contraception methods.
  • Helps in maintaining safe sexual and reproductive health.
  • With this awareness, an individual can protect themselves from sexually transmitted infections and diseases.
  • It provides complete education to all pregnant mothers about how to take care of their health, to have proper medicines, to maintain good health and hygiene when they are pregnant, have a safe delivery and to deliver a healthy baby.

For more information on Haemophilia, watch the below video

Few Important Questions

  • What are the components of reproductive health?
  • List out the importance of reproductive health.
  • What are Sexually Transmitted Diseases?

Learn more about reproduction, reproductive system and reproductive health from the topics given below:

Human Reproductive System Female reproductive system
Reproductive Health and Adolescence Male reproductive system

Frequently Asked Questions on CBSE Class 12 Biology Notes Chapter 4 Reproductive Health


What are the benefits of contraception?

1. Reduces pregnancy-related mortality and morbidity 2. Reduces risk of ovarian cysts 3. Regulates menstrual cycle 4. Reduces hormonal acne 5. Can help in avoiding unwanted pregnancies


What is IVF?

IVF stands for in vitro fertilization and is one of the specialised techniques for childbirth.


What is haemophilia?

Haemophilia is a rare condition that affects the blood’s ability to clot. It’s usually inherited, and most people who have it are male.


Leave a Comment

Your Mobile number and Email id will not be published.



Tuition Center
Tuition Centre
free trial
Free Trial Class
Scholarship Test
Scholarship Test
Question and Answer
Question & Answer