Reproductive Health Class 12 Notes

What Is Reproductive Health?

Reproductive Health is generally defined as healthy and proper/normal functioning of all the reproductive organs covering all reproductive aspects.

One of the first countries in the world to launch action schemes and programmes regarding family planning was India, to accomplish total reproductive health as a social goal. It was initiated at a national level in the year 1951 to generate awareness regarding various aspects pertaining to reproduction by rendering facilities and support to establish a reproductively healthy society.

For the successful conduction of these schemes, both the governmental and non-governmental agencies have taken various steps to create awareness among the citizens about reproduction-related aspects and it includes:

  • Awareness about family planning.
  • Introduction of Sex education in schools.
  • All printed materials were all distributed to provide awareness.
  • Using Audio and Video on Powerpoint Slides on Reproductive Health.
  • Complete information about the reproductive organs, adolescence, safe and hygienic sexual practices, sexually transmitted diseases, birth control methods, care of mother and newborn child, etc.

Also see: Important Questions for Class 12 Chapter 4: Reproductive Health

Population Stabilization and Birth Control

  • An exponential rise in the population from the time of independence until May 2011 was contributed to factors such as rapid decline in the death rate, infant mortality rate(IMR), maternal mortality rate(MMR) and a sharp rise in the reproducible age are deemed to the contributing factors
  • The RCH(Reproductive Child Health) programme was effective only marginally to bring down the population growth rate
  • The government was forced to take up stern measures as a result of alarming growth rate leading to scarcity of basic requirements
  • The measures to check the population growth rate most importantly is encouraging people to have smaller families through the use of various contraceptives. Some other measures were – familiarizing slogans(Hum do Hamare do), statutory raising of marriageable ages of  both males and females, incentives to couples with smaller families and so on
  • Contraceptive methods have a broad range covering natural/traditional methods(periodic abstinence), IUDs, barriers(diaphragms, condoms, cervical caps, vaults), oral contraceptives(pills), implants, surgical methods(sterilization), injectables and so on

Read More: Contraception

Medical Termination Of Pregnancy(MTP)

  • MTP or induced abortion was legalized in India in 1971 with strict conditions to avoid any misuse. It refers to the voulntary or intentional termination of pregnancy before reaching the full term
  • It is considered safe until the first trimester after which increases the chances of being at a riskier place

Infertility

  • The state of  being unable to produce offsprings even after sexual intercourse is referred to as infertility which can be contributed to factors – congenital, physical, drugs, psychological, immunological
  • To assist such couples there are specialized techniques – ART(assisted reproductive technologies) which covers IVF(Invitro fertilization) and ET(Embryo transfer)

Importance Of Reproductive Health

  • Reproductive Health conveys complete awareness of various sexually transmitted diseases.
  • Provides accurate information about sexual life, reproduction, contraception methods.
  • Helps in maintaining safe sexual and reproductive health.
  • With this awareness, an individual can protect themselves from sexually transmitted infections and diseases.
  • It provides a complete education to all pregnant mothers about how to take care of their health, to have proper medicines, to maintain good health and hygiene when they are pregnant, have a safe delivery and deliver a healthy baby.

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Few Important Questions

  • What are the components of Reproductive Health?
  • List out the importance of Reproductive Health?
  • What are Sexually Transmitted Diseases?

Learn more about reproduction, reproductive system and reproductive health from the topics given below:

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