Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers Class 12 Notes - Chapter 11

Ethers are classified based on the group attached to an oxygen atom. Phenols and alcohols are categorized based on two factors:

  • Number of hydroxyl groups present
  • Based on the hybridization of the carbon atom to which the -OH group is attached

Preparation Of Alcohols

Alcohols can be prepared by the process of hydration of alkenes or from carbonyl compounds.

  • Hydration of alkenes – When preparing in this method it is either in the presence of an acid or by a hydroboration-oxidation reaction.
  • Carbonyl compounds – When preparing in this method it is carried out by catalytic reduction as well as the action of Grignard reagents.

Preparation Of Phenols

Alcohols can be prepared by substitution reaction or by hydrolyzing diazonium salts or from cumene

  • Substitution reaction – It can be prepared by two processes viz sulphonic acid group in aryl sulphonic acids, by –OH group and halogen atom in haloarenes.

Ethers can be prepared by either dehydration of alcohols and Williamson synthesis. Hydrogen halides can cleave the C-O bond in ethers. Both alcohols, as well as phenols, are acidic in nature.

Few Important Questions

  1. IUPAC names for compounds are given below. Write their structure
    • Cyclopent-3-en-1-ol
    • 2-Ethoxy-3-methylpentane
    • 2-Methylbutan-2-ol
    • 4-Chloro-3-ethylbutan-1-ol
  1. The boiling point of propanol is higher than hydrocarbon, butane. Explain.
  2. Show the synthesis of cyclohexylmethanol by using an alkyl halide in an SN2 reaction.
  3. Explain Kolbe’s reaction with an example.
  4. Which is more acidic between ortho nitrophenol and ortho methoxyphenol? Why?
  5. Ethanol has a higher boiling point when compared to methoxymethane? Explain.
  6. What will be the equation for the reactions given below?
    • Nitration of anisole
    • Friedel-Craft’s acetylation of anisole

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Oxides which give bases on reaction with water are called acidic oxides - True or False?