The elements from the group 13 to 18 in the periodic table are p-Block elements. They have a valence shell electronic configuration ns2np1–6. Since we have already discussed the group13 and 14 elements in the previous class, therefore, we will be covering the remaining groups of p-Block elements in this chapter.
Group 15 Elements
The group 15 elements have electronic configuration ns2np3. The elements present in this group are Nitrogen, Phosphorous, Arsenic, Antimony, Bismuth. Nitrogen is different from other elements of this group as it is small in size, it forms multiple pπ–pπ bonds with itself as well as highly electronegative atoms. Elements of this group show a series of properties such as
- They exhibit two crucial oxidation states +5 and +3.
- They react with halogen, oxygen, and hydrogen
Group 16 Elements
The elements of group 16 have an electronic configuration of ns2np4 and have a maximum oxidation state of +6. It has varying chemical and physical properties. The preparation of dioxygen in the laboratory is carried out by heating KClO3 in presence of MnO2.
Group 17 Elements
The elements of group 17 are found only in the combined state and are highly reactive. The elements that belong to this group are Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine, Astatine. Their highest oxidation state is +7 whereas common oxidation state is -1.
Group 18 Elements
The elements of group 18 are noble gases. Their valance shell electronic configuration except Helium is ns2np6. The electronic configuration of He is 1s2.
Few Important Questions
- Distinguish between red phosphorus and white phosphorus.
- How many oxoacids does fluorine form? Why?
- Explain the manufacturing of sulphuric acid by the contact process.
- Does the reactivity of phosphorous differ from nitrogen? Explain in detail.
- What are the different chemical reactions involved in the preparation of nitrogen in the laboratory?
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