Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids Class 12 Notes - Chapter 12

Some important organic compounds containing carbonyl group are carboxylic acids, aldehydes, and ketones. These molecules are highly polar and hence have high boiling temperatures when compared to hydrocarbons as well as weak polar compounds such as ethers of comparable molecular masses. The lower embers form hydrogen bonds with water and therefore are highly water soluble. On the other hand, higher members have big size hydrophobic carbon chain and are insoluble in water. Method of preparing aldehyde is by controlled oxidation of primary alcohols or dehydrogenation and cautious or controlled reduction of acyl halides. Aromatic halides may be produced by oxidation of

  • Methylbenzene with chromyl chloride in presence of acetic anhydride
  • Formylation of arenes with carbon monoxide along with hydrochloric acid in the presence of anhydrous AlCl3
  • CuCl or hydrolysis of C7H6Cl2

Preparation Of Ketones

Ketones are prepared by oxidizing secondary alcohols and the hydration of alkynes. They can also be prepared by reacting acyl chloride with dialkylcadmium. Ketones, as well as aldehydes, can also be prepared by ozonolysis of alkenes

Few Important Questions

  1. Draw the structures of p-Nitropropiophenone and 4-Chloropentan-2-one.
  2. Convert ethanal to But-2-enoic acid and Butane-1,3-diol.
  3. Give a chemical test to distinguish between Benzoic acid and Ethyl benzoate.
  4. How to prepare Methyl benzoate from benzene?
  5. What is Acetylation? Define Decarboxylation.

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Practise This Question

Crystals of covalent compounds always have