Electricity and Circuits Class 6 notes - Chapter 12

The Electric Cell


  • Current is the flow of particles in a particular direction. E.g air currents that cause winds or water currents.
  • When particles flow in an electric circuit to produce electricity, it is called an electric current.

Electric current

The flow of electric charges in a circuit is called an electric current. The direction is taken from the positive terminal to the negative terminal of the battery in an external circuit.

Electric Cell

  • A cell is a source of electric power, created inside by internal chemical reactions.
  • When the chemicals inside the cell are exhausted, the cell needs to be replaced by a new one.
  • Cells have two terminals: a positive and a negative terminal. In order for current to flow, the positive terminal must be connected to the negative terminal and this polarity must be maintained.

CBSE Class 6 Science notes Chapter 12 - 1

Bulb Connected to an Electric Cell


  • An electric wire is a conducting path in an electric circuit, through which current flows.
  • It is usually made out of a metal that is a good conductor of electricity.

CBSE Class 6 Science notes Chapter 12 - 2

Electric Bulb and its working

  • Consists of a thin wire that glows due to the passage of current. This is known as the filament.
  • An electric circuit provides a closed path for the current to flow. Terminals of the bulb are connected by wires to the electric cell.
  • Sometimes the bulb does not glow as the filament gets fused (breaks) due to overheating.

CBSE Class 6 Science notes Chapter 12 - 3

An Electric Circuit

Electric circuit

  • A closed-loop path, which the current takes is known as an electric circuit.
  • When the path of the circuit is closed, current flows through it.
  • When there is a break in the path (switch is open) then, the circuit is open and not conducting so the current does not flow.

CBSE Class 6 Science notes Chapter 12 - 4

An Electric Switch

Electric switches

  • Devices that are used to connect the circuit or break it.
  • When the switch is connected, we call it ON, and when it’s not in contact (or open) with the circuit, the switch is OFF.​​​​​​

CBSE Class 6 Science notes Chapter 12 - 5

Conductors and insulators

  • Any material that allows the electric current to pass through it is called as the conductor. Eg: metals like copper
  • Materials that do not allow the free flow of current through it are known as bad conductors or insulators E.g.: Rubber, plastic

Learn more about the Electricity and Circuits from the topics given below:

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