- Extinction is when a species is completely wiped out from the Earth.
- Once the last living individual of a species dies, the species is said to be extinct.
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- Deforestation is the destruction of forests by cutting down trees.
- Deforestation leads to habitat loss for many animals.
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Causes of Deforestation
Deforestation can occur due to one of the following reasons:
- Procuring land for cultivation.
- Building houses and factories.
- Making furniture or using wood as fuel.
- Natural causes such as forest fire and severe drought can also cause deforestation.
Consequences of Deforestation
- Deforestation increases the temperature and pollution level on the earth.
- It increases the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
- It also reduces the level of groundwater.
- Drought is the lack of water in an area. Droughts can happen due to lack of rainfall.
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- Formation of a desert by erosion of vegetation due to harsh weather is called desertification.
- Human activities like deforestation and improper irrigation are also responsible for desertification of terrains.
- Global warming is the change of climate on a global level.
- Usually, average temperature increases leading to melting of ice caps in the poles.
- Excessive pollution and deforestation cause global warming.
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- A species is a group of individuals that can breed and successfully produce fertile offsprings.
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Make the World a Greener Place
Recycling of Paper
- The paper industry is a leading cause of deforestation since they need wood pulp.
- Recycling paper can help in reducing the consumption of wood pulp by the paper industry.
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- Reforestation is restocking of the destroyed forests by planting new trees.
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Conservation of forest and wildlife
- Due to the threat from mankind’s indulgence, it is important for us to conserve the forest and its wildlife.
- Wildlife is important for us to maintain balance in nature.
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- A wildlife sanctuary, is a naturally occurring sanctuary, such as an island, that provides protection for species from hunting, predation, competition or poaching.
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Flora and fauna
- The plants and animals found in a particular area are termed flora and fauna of that area, respectively.
- A national park is a park that is used for biodiversity conservation.
- They are developed and maintained by the Union Government.
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Biosphere and Biodiversity
- The biosphere is that part of the earth in which living organisms exist or which supports life.
- Biological diversity or biodiversity refers to the variety of organisms existing on the earth, their interrelationships and their relationship with the environment.
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- Endemic species are those species of plants and animals which are found exclusively in a particular area.
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- Biosphere reserves are areas that protected from human intervention.
- These areas help in conservation of endangered species.
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- Project Tiger was launched by the government to protect and conserve the dwindling tiger population in the country.
- Several Natural parks have been associated with the project tiger initiative.
- Animals whose numbers are diminishing to a level that they might face extinction are known as endangered animals.
- An ecosystem is sum total of all the plants, animals and microorganisms in an area along with non-living components such as climate, soil, river deltas, etc.
Red Data Book
Red Data Book is the source book which keeps a record of all the endangered animals and plants.
- Migration is the periodic movement of animals from one place to another.
- It is usually done for breeding and to escape harsh climates.
- Migration is common in birds and fishes.
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|NCERT Solutions for class 8 Science Chapter 7|
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Frequently asked Questions on CBSE Class 8 Science Notes Chapter 7: Conservation of Plants and Animals
What are the effects of deforestation?
1. Soil erosion/pollution 2. Lack of natural resources 3. Increase in greenhouse gases 4. Flooding
What are the natural resources available on Earth?
Oil, coal, natural gas, metals, stone and sand are natural resources. Other natural resources are air, sunlight, soil and water. Animals, birds, fish and plants are natural resources as well.
What are ‘Endemic species’?
Endemic species are those species of plants and animals which are found exclusively in a particular area.