Conservation Of Plants And Animals Class 8 Notes

Extinction

  • Extinction is when a species is completely wiped out from Earth.
  • Once the last living individual of a species dies, the species is said to be extinct.

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Deforestation

  • Deforestation is the destruction of forests by cutting down trees.
  • Deforestation leads to habitat loss for many animals.

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Causes of deforestation

Deforestation can occur due to one of the following reasons:

  • Procuring land for cultivation.
  • Building houses and factories.
  • Making furniture or using wood as fuel.
  • Natural causes such as forest fire and severe drought can also cause deforestation.

Consequences of deforestation

  • Deforestation increases the temperature and pollution level on the earth.
  • It increases the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
  • It also reduces the level of groundwater.

Droughts

  • Drought is the lack of water in an area. Droughts can happen due to lack of rainfall.

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Desertification

  • Formation of a desert by erosion of vegetation due to harsh weather is called desertification.
  • Human activities like deforestation and improper irrigation are also responsible for desertification of terrains.

Global Warming

  • Global warming is the change of climate on a global level.
  • Usually, average temperature increases leading to melting of ice caps in the poles.
  • Excessive pollution and deforestation cause global warming.

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Species

  • A species is a group of individuals that can breed and successfully produce fertile offsprings.

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Make the World a Greener Place

Recycling of Paper

  • Paper industry is a leading cause of deforestation since they need wood pulp.
  • Recycling paper can help in reducing the consumption of wood pulp by the paper industry.

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Reforestation

  • Reforestation is restocking of the destroyed forests by planting new trees.

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Wildlife Conservation

Conservation of forest and wildlife

  • Due to the threat from mankind’s indulgence, it is important for us to conserve the forest and its wildlife.
  • Wildlife is important for us to maintain balance in nature.

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Wildlife sanctuary

  • A wildlife sanctuary, is a naturally occurring sanctuary, such as an island, that provides protection for species from hunting, predation, competition or poaching.

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National Park

Flora and fauna

  • The plants and animals found in a particular area are termed flora and fauna of that area respectively.

National Park

  • A national park is a park that is used for biodiversity conservation.
  • They are developed and maintained by the union government.

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Biosphere Reserves

Biosphere and Biodiversity

  • The biosphere is that part of the earth in which living organisms exist or which supports life.
  • Biological diversity or biodiversity refers to the variety of organisms existing on the earth, their interrelationships and their relationship with the environment.

Biodiversity

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Endemic species

  • Endemic species are those species of plants and animals which are found exclusively in a particular area.

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Biosphere reserve

  • Biosphere reserves are areas that protected from human intervention.
  • These areas help in conservation of endangered species.

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Project Tiger

  • Project Tiger was launched by the government to protect and conserve the dwindling tiger population in the country.
  • Several Natural parks have been associated with the project tiger initiative.

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Endangered animals

  • Animals whose numbers are diminishing to a level that they might face extinction are known as endangered animals.

Ecosystem

  • An ecosystem is sum total of all the plants, animals and microorganisms in an area along with non-living components such as climate, soil, river deltas, etc.

Red Data Book

Red Data Book is the source book which keeps a record of all the endangered animals and plants.

Migration

  • Migration is the periodic movement of animals from one place to another.
  • It is usually done for breeding and to escape harsh climates.
  • Migration is common in birds and fishes.

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