Human Reproduction Class 12 Notes

According to the CBSE Syllabus 2023-24, this chapter has been renumbered as Chapter 2.

Reproduction is the process of giving birth to young ones, which are identical to their parents. As we all are aware, the process of reproduction in humans is sexual reproduction, which involves internal fertilisation by sexual intercourse.

Students can refer to the short notes and MCQ questions along with separate solution pdf of this chapter for quick revision from the links below:

Human Reproductive System

The human reproductive system mainly consists of:

The Male Reproductive System

Male reproductive system

  • The male reproductive system is positioned in the pelvis region and comprises a pair of testes in addition to the accessory glands, ducts, and external genitalia.
  • A pouch-like structure known as the scrotum encloses the testes located outside the abdominal cavity.
  • Each testis has close to 250 testicular lobules(compartments). These lobules comprise 1-3 seminiferous tubules wherein the sperms are produced. The lining of these tubules consists of two types of cells – male germ cells and Sertoli cells.
  • The exterior of these tubules consists of spaces containing blood vessels and Leydig cells.
  • Male sex accessory ducts comprise rete testis, vasa efferntia, epididymis and vas deferens.
  • The urethra opens externally to the urethral meatus.
  • The male external genitalia, the penis, is covered by the foreskin, which is a loose fold of skin.

The Female Reproductive System

Female Reproductive Organs

The female reproductive system is made up of internal and external sex organs, which consist of a pair of ovaries and oviducts, cervix, uterus, vagina and the external genitalia situated in the pelvic region. Along with the mammary glands, these female reproductive organs are combined both structurally and functionally in order to support the complete processes of reproduction, including ovulation, fertilisation, pregnancy, and the birth of a child.

  • The female accessory ducts are constituted by the oviducts, vagina and uterus.
  • The section closer to the ovary is a funnel-shaped infundibulum that possesses the fimbriae – finger-like projections facilitating the assimilation of the ovum post ovulation.
  • The infundibulum directs to a wider section of the oviduct known as the ampulla.
  • The last section of the oviduct, the isthmus, has a narrow lumen joining the uterus.
  • The uterus is also known as the womb.
  • The cervical cavity is known as the cervical canal, which goes on to form the birth canal along with the vagina.
  • Female external genitalia comprises – mons pubis, labia minora, labia majora, clitoris and hymen.

Both the male and female reproductive systems play an important role in the process of reproduction. Other than these reproductive organs, there are sex hormones which are produced by the respective glands and are mainly involved in the development of secondary sexual characteristics and proper functioning of the reproductive tracts.

Further Reading: Important Questions for Class 12 Chapter 3: Human Reproduction

Process of Reproduction

The process of reproduction in all humans is carried out phase-wise, as discussed below:

  • Pre-fertilisation – Gametes are formed and transferred
  • Fertilisation- formation of zygote after a sperm fertilises the egg
  • Post-fertilisation- Mitotic division of zygote leading to the formation of an embryo. This reproductive stage is referred to as embryogenesis.

Duration and Stages of Pregnancy

Human gestation lasts for an average of 266 days or 38 weeks or 9 months and these intervals are called as trimesters.

  • 1st trimester (1st 3 months or week 1 – 12) – pre-embryonic and embryonic development.
  • 2nd trimester (next 3 months: week 13 – 24) – The fetal development begins.
  • 3rd trimester (next 3 months: week 25 – birth) – At this stage baby continues to grow and mature.

Also See: Menstrual Cycle: Tears of Uterus

Few Important Questions

  • What are the three stages of parturition?
  • What happens during spermatogenesis?
  • Describe the structure of a male reproductive system.
  • What is the role of sex hormones in the human reproductive system?
  • Explain in detail about the female reproductive system with a neat labelled diagram.

Learn more about human reproduction from the topics given below:

Sexual Reproduction Reproductive System
Human Reproductive System Fertilisation And Implantation

Frequently Asked Questions on CBSE Class 12 Biology Notes Human Reproduction


What are the main parts of the male reproductive system?

The male reproductive system includes the penis, scrotum, testes, epididymis, vas deferens, prostate and seminal vesicles.


What are the main parts of the female reproductive system?

The main parts of the female’s internal reproductive organs are the vagina, uterus, fallopian tubes, cervix and ovary.


What are gametes?

Gametes are an organism’s reproductive cells. They are also referred to as sex cells. Female gametes are called ova or egg cells, and male gametes are called sperm.


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