NCERT Solution for Class 11 Accountancy Chapter 7 - Depreciation, Provisions and Reserves

NCERT Solutions are said to be an extremely helpful study material while preparing for the CBSE Class 11 Accountancy examinations. This study material owns a deep knowledge and the Solutions collected by the subject matter wizards are no distinct.

NCERT Solution For Class 11 Commerce Accountancy Chapter 7 – Depreciation, Provisions, And Reserves furnishes us with an all-inclusive data to all the concepts. As the students would have to learn the basic fundamentals of the subject of accountancy in Class 11, this curriculum for Class 11 is a comprehensive study material that explains the concepts in a great way.

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ncert solution class 11 accountancy chapter 7
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ncert solution class 11 accountancy chapter 7
ncert solution class 11 accountancy chapter 7
ncert solution class 11 accountancy chapter 7
ncert solution class 11 accountancy chapter 7
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ncert solution class 11 accountancy chapter 7
ncert solution class 11 accountancy chapter 7
ncert solution class 11 accountancy chapter 7
ncert solution class 11 accountancy chapter 7
ncert solution class 11 accountancy chapter 7
ncert solution class 11 accountancy chapter 7
ncert solution class 11 accountancy chapter 7
ncert solution class 11 accountancy chapter 7
ncert solution class 11 accountancy chapter 7
ncert solution class 11 accountancy chapter 7
ncert solution class 11 accountancy chapter 7
ncert solution class 11 accountancy chapter 7
ncert solution class 11 accountancy chapter 7
ncert solution class 11 accountancy chapter 7
ncert solution class 11 accountancy chapter 7
ncert solution class 11 accountancy chapter 7
ncert solution class 11 accountancy chapter 7
ncert solution class 11 accountancy chapter 7
ncert solution class 11 accountancy chapter 7
ncert solution class 11 accountancy chapter 7
ncert solution class 11 accountancy chapter 7
ncert solution class 11 accountancy chapter 7
ncert solution class 11 accountancy chapter 7
ncert solution class 11 accountancy chapter 7
ncert solution class 11 accountancy chapter 7
ncert solution class 11 accountancy chapter 7
ncert solution class 11 accountancy chapter 7
ncert solution class 11 accountancy chapter 7
ncert solution class 11 accountancy chapter 7
ncert solution class 11 accountancy chapter 7
ncert solution class 11 accountancy chapter 7
ncert solution class 11 accountancy chapter 7
ncert solution class 11 accountancy chapter 7
ncert solution class 11 accountancy chapter 7
ncert solution class 11 accountancy chapter 7
ncert solution class 11 accountancy chapter 7
ncert solution class 11 accountancy chapter 7
ncert solution class 11 accountancy chapter 7
ncert solution class 11 accountancy chapter 7
ncert solution class 11 accountancy chapter 7
ncert solution class 11 accountancy chapter 7
ncert solution class 11 accountancy chapter 7
ncert solution class 11 accountancy chapter 7
ncert solution class 11 accountancy chapter 7
ncert solution class 11 accountancy chapter 7
ncert solution class 11 accountancy chapter 7
ncert solution class 11 accountancy chapter 7
ncert solution class 11 accountancy chapter 7
ncert solution class 11 accountancy chapter 7
ncert solution class 11 accountancy chapter 7
ncert solution class 11 accountancy chapter 7
ncert solution class 11 accountancy chapter 7
ncert solution class 11 accountancy chapter 7
ncert solution class 11 accountancy chapter 7
ncert solution class 11 accountancy chapter 7
ncert solution class 11 accountancy chapter 7

 

Access NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Accountancy Chapter 7

Short Answers for NCERT Accountancy Class 11 Chapter 7

1. What is Depreciation?

Any fixed asset that is acquired by a business is subjected to wear & tear and obsolescence over a time. This decrease in monetary value is calculated by a measure in accounting referred to as depreciation.

2. State briefly the need for providing depreciation.

Depreciation is needed for following reasons:

1. Determining actual profit or loss: Actual profit and loss can be determined only when all expenditures and losses are added to P & L Account. Assets in business are used to earn revenues; the corresponding cost gets charged as depreciation in P & L Account (Profit & Loss Account).

2. Provide unbiased view of financial statements: Assets will be shown at inflated values when depreciation do not get charged, so it will lead to balance sheet not showing the fair view of the financial statements.

3. Cost of production: Production cost includes the depreciation charged on machinery and plant and other similar assets. When depreciation is not charged production cost will be uneven which will reduce the profit.

4. Distribution of dividend from profit: If no depreciation is charged then overestimation of profit takes place which causes profit to be distributed as dividend. It results in movement of capital away from the business.

5. Funds used for asset replacement: Depreciation charged for assets will help in meeting the expense for replacing the asset in future.

6. Tax consideration: The P & L account will reflect less profit if depreciation is charged, which results in paying less taxes for the business.

3. What are the causes of depreciation?

The major causes of depreciation are listed below:

1. Regular use: Regular use of assets leads to decrement that reduces the value of such assets.

  1. Expiry with time: Assets whether used or not, will show a decline in their effective life with the passage of time. Rain, wind and other Natural forces bring about deterioration of the asset.
  2. Obsolescence: Technological advances will make the current assets obsolete in future

4. Legal rights expiry: An assets value becomes zero after its useful life. This is known as depreciation in accounting terms.

  1. Accident: The value of an asset can be permanently reduced due to some accident which can include fire, natural calamity etc.

4. Explain basic factors affecting the amount of depreciation

The basic factors affecting the amount of depreciation are as follows:

1. Cost of asset: Depreciation of an asset is directly proportional to the cost of asset and cost of a fixed asset is calculated by adding cost of acquisition, installation etc. Hence, cost is an important factor for affecting depreciation.

2. Estimated useful life: Every fixed asset has a useful life till which it can be used for a business. After that it will not be of any use to the business. Hence, useful life of an asset is also a factor to determine depreciation.

3. Estimated scrap value: Every asset has a scrap value or salvage value. It is also known as net residual value or as the sale value of the asset arrived at the end of its useful life. If the net residual value is more, it will help in reducing the amount of depreciation and vice versa. Thus, net residual value is also one of the factors affecting the amount of depreciation.

5. Distinguish between straight line method and written down value method of calculating depreciation.

The points of difference between straight line method and written down value method is as follows:

Basis of Comparison Straight Line Method Written Down Value Method
How it is calculated Original asset cost is taken as the basis for calculating Depreciation Reducing balance is the basis of calculating depreciation. Reducing balance is also known as book value
How depreciation is charged A fixed amount is deducted every year till the useful life of the asset Depreciation is deducted based on the written down value of an asset every year, till the effective life of an asset.
Value of Asset It reaches zero at the effective life of the asset and is written off It never becomes zero and hence not completely written off.
Asset Suitability Assets such as buildings and lands which require less repair and have less chances of becoming obsolete are suitable for this method Assets requiring more repair like, machinery ,plant, car are more suitable
Impact of Depreciation and repairs on P & L account Increases every year Remains constant every year

6. In case of a long-term asset, repair and maintenance expenses are expected to rise in later years than in earlier year. Which method is suitable for charging depreciation if the management does not want to increase burden on profits and loss account on account of depreciation and repair?

In case of assets that require more repairs in the later part of their life such as car, machinery etc., the most preferred method that can be used by management for maintaining a balance on profit and loss account is the written down method.

In this method, in the initial years, depreciation costs are high and repairs are less, while at the later years the situation is reversed and the repair cost increases with lower depreciation costs. This creates a balance without putting burden on profit.

7. What are the effects of depreciation on profit and loss account and balance sheet?

Following effects can be seen in P & L account:

1. Reduces net profit by increasing the debit column of P & L account.

2. Surplus of debit balance occurs over the credit balance due to increase in the total expenses.

Impact on balance sheet:

1. It leads to reduction of book value or original cost of the asset.

2. It leads to decrease in total balance of the asset’s column.

8. Distinguish between provision and reserve

Basis of Comparison Provision Reserve
Meaning Maintained to meet a liability that is known in nature Created to meet any liability that is unknown in nature
Nature It is charged against profit Appropriation of profit is reserve
Purpose Formed with a specific liability in mind Created for fortifying the business
How it is created By debiting P& L account By debiting the P & L appropriation account.
Dividend Payment Not used for paying dividends Can be utilized for paying dividends
Need of Creation It needs to be created if business makes no profit at all It is created if profit is there in business

9. Give four examples each of provision and reserves.

Examples of provision:

  1. Provision for taxation
  2. Provision for discount on debtors
  3. Provision for bad and doubtful debts
  4. Provision for depreciation

Examples of reserves:

  1. Dividend equalisation reserve
  2. Debenture redemption reserve
  3. General reserve
  4. Capital reserve

10. Distinguish between revenue reserve and capital reserve.

Basis of Comparison Revenue Reserve Capital Reserve
Source of creation Revenue received from daily operations of a business. Profits earned from sale of capital assets.
For paying Dividend Yes, can be paid as dividend No, cannot be paid as dividend
Purpose It helps serving the purpose of solidification of the businesses financial position Serves the purpose of financing long term project or writing off capital expenses

11. Give four examples each of revenue reserve and capital reserves.

Revenue reserve examples are as follows:

  1. General Reserve
  2. Retained Earnings
  3. Dividend Equalisation Reserve
  4. Debenture Redemption Reserve

Capital reserve examples are as follows:

  1. Sale of fixed assets
  2. Issues of shares at premium
  3. Profit or issue of shares
  4. Profit on redemption of debentures

12. Distinguish between general reserve and specific reserve.

Basis of Comparison General Reserve Specific Reserve
Meaning A reserve created without any specific purpose Reserve created with a specific purpose
Uses Can be utilized on whichever purpose necessary for business It needs to be used only for the purpose it is created
Some examples Fund reserves, retained earnings Dividend equalisation reserve, Debenture redemption reserve, etc.

13. Explain the concept of secret reserve.

An amount that leads to undervaluing the assets of an organization or overestimation of liabilities is called as secret reserve. It is formed with the purpose of hiding business profit from competitive organizations or competitors.

Long Answers for NCERT Accountancy Solutions Class 11 Chapter 7

1. Explain the concept of depreciation. What is the need for charging depreciation and what are the causes of depreciation?

Any fixed asset that is acquired by a business is subjected to wear and tear and obsolescence over a time. This decrease in monetary value is calculated by a measure in accounting called as depreciation.

Depreciation is needed for following reasons:

1. Determining actual profit or loss: Actual profit and loss can be determined only when all losses and expenses are added to P & L Account. Assets are used in business to earn revenues, the cost is charged as depreciation in P & L Account (Profit & Loss Account).

2. Provide fair view of financial statements: Assets will be shown at inflated values as charge for depreciation is not added, so it will lead to balance sheet not showing the fair view of the financial statements.

3. Cost of production: Cost of production includes the depreciation charged on plant, machinery and other similar assets. If depreciation is not charged cost of production will be uneven which will reduce the profit.

4. Distribution of dividend from profit: If no depreciation is charged then overestimation of profit takes place which leads to profit being circulated as dividend. It leads to the movement of capital away from the business.

5. Funds used for replacement of assets: Depreciation charged for assets will help in meeting the expense for replacing of asset in future.

6. Tax consideration: The P & L account will reflect less profit if depreciation is charged, which results in paying less taxes for the business.

The major causes of depreciation are listed below:

1. Regular use: Regular use of assets leads to its deterioration that reduces the value of such assets.

  1. Expiry with time: Assets whether used or not, will show a decline in their effective life with the passage of time. Rain, wind and other Natural forces bring about deterioration of the asset.
  2. Obsolescence: Technological advances will make the current assets obsolete in future

4. Legal rights Expiry: The value of an asset becomes zero after its useful life. This is known as depreciation in accounting terms.

  1. Accident: The value of an asset can be permanently reduced due to some accident which can include fire, natural calamity etc.

2. Discuss in detail the straight-line method and written down value method of depreciation. Distinguish between the two and also give situations where they are useful.

Straight Line method

It is one of the simplest method of calculating depreciation. It is charged on original cost of the asset at a constant rate.

Depreciation is calculated using the formulae:

Annual Depreciation expense = (Asset cost – Residual Value) / Useful life of the asset

Advantages of Straight-Line Method

  1. Simple calculation required
  2. Value of an asset can be made zero after its useful life.
  3. Comparing P & L accounts every year is easy as equal amount is charged as depreciation.
  4. It is suitable for assets which require less repairs.

Straight-Line Method limitations

  1. More burden on P & L account as asset becomes older and requires repair and maintenance.
  2. An asset can become zero value even when it is in useful condition.

Straight-Line Method benefits

  1. Useful for assets which require less repairs and maintenance.
  2. Useful if an asset is used continuously.

Written Down Value Method

Rate of depreciation is calculated on the diminishing value of asset. It is also known as reducing balance method.

Rate of depreciation is calculated using the formulae:

Rate of Depreciation

Where,

R = depreciation rate

n = Assets useful life that can be expected

s = scrap value

c= cost of an asset

Written Down Value Method Advantages

  1. Depreciation is charged more in initial years as asset will be more useful during the early years.
  2. As assets will be requiring more repair in the later stages. The collective load of depreciation and repairs on profit and loss account will remain equal over the years.
  3. Approved for tax calculations
  4. Loss arising from obsolescence can be greatly reduced as most of the cost is recovered in the initial years.

Written Down Value Method Limitations

  1. Determining the rate of depreciation is difficult.
  2. The book value never reaches zero in this method as depreciation cannot be fully written off.
  3. Business may find it difficult to gather price for replacement of asset as most of the depreciation is charged in the early years and that amount is used in the business.

Written Down Value Method Uses

  1. Suitable for assets having long useful life.
  2. Convenient for assets that requiring greater maintenance costs and repairs in the later years.

Difference between Straight Line Method and Written Down Value Method

Basis of Comparison Straight Line Method Written Down Value Method
How it is calculated Actual cost of an asset is taken as the basis for calculating Depreciation Reducing balance is the basis of calculating depreciation. Reducing balance is also known as book value
How depreciation is charged Fixed amount is charged every year till the effective life of the asset Depreciation is charged based on the written down value of asset every year, till the effective life of the asset
Value of Asset It becomes zero at the end of effective life of the asset and is written off It never becomes zero and hence not completely written off.
Asset Suitability Assets such as buildings and lands which require less repair and have less chances of becoming obsolete are suitable for this method Assets requiring frequent repair like, machinery, plant and car.
Impact of Depreciation and repairs on P & L account Increases every year Remains constant every year

3. Describe in detail two methods of recording depreciation. Also give the necessary journal entries.

Here are some methods by which depreciation can be recorded:

  1. Depreciation charged to asset account: In this method, the depreciation is deducted from the depreciable cost of the asset which gets credited to asset account and debited to profit and loss account.

Journal entries for depreciation are shown below:

Depreciation charged to asset account

Depreciation A/c Dr.
To Assets A/c
(Depreciation charged to Assets Account)

Closing of Depreciation Account

Profit and Loss A/c Dr.
To Depreciation A/c
(Depreciation transferred to P& L Account)
  1. Provision created for depreciation account− In this method amount of depreciation is debited to depreciation account and credited to provision for depreciation account. The depreciation amount gets transferred to P & L account at the end of the year.

Following journal entries are made:

Charging (crediting) Depreciation to Provision for depreciation account

Depreciation A/c Dr.
To Provision for Depreciation A/c
(Charged Depreciation)

For charging depreciation to P & L account

Profit and Loss A/c Dr.
To Depreciation A/c
(Depreciation charged to Profit and Loss Account)

After sale of asset, the accumulated depreciation gets credited to the Asset account with the following entry:

Provision for Depreciation A/c Dr.
To Asset A/c
(Accumulated depreciation gets debited to Assets Account)

4. Explain determinants of the amount of depreciation.

The basic factors affecting the amount of depreciation are as follows:

1. Cost of asset: Depreciation of an asset is directly proportional to the cost of asset and cost of a fixed asset is calculated by adding cost of acquisition, installation etc. Hence, cost is an important factor for affecting depreciation.

2. Estimated useful life: Every fixed asset has a useful life till which it can be used for a business. After that it will not be of any use to the business. Hence, useful life of an asset is also a factor to determine depreciation.

3. Estimated scrap value: Every asset has a scrap value or salvage value. It is also known as net residual value or sale value of the asset at the end of its useful life. If the net residual value is more, it will help in reducing the amount of depreciation and vice versa. Thus, net residual value is also one of the factors affecting the amount of depreciation.

After 10 years, furniture is sold at ₹ 5,000. So, depreciation will be:

Depreciation (p.a.) = (Original cost – Scrap Value)
Estimated Life of Asset (years)
= (40,000 – 5,000)
10
=3,500/annum

5. Name and explain different types of reserves in details.

Reserves: Reserves are created from the profits of the business. It helps in fortifying the financial position of a business and also help in growth of company.

Reserves are classified into two types:

  1. Revenue Reserve: Revenue reserve is created from revenue profit. It can be of two types: a) General and b) Specific Purpose

a. General Reserve: The purpose for which reserves are created are not specified, such reserves are called as General Reserves. These reserves can be utilized for the growth of business.

b. Specific Reserve: A specific reserve is created with the intent of utilizing for a specific purpose in the business.

Following are some examples:

i. Dividend Equalisation Reserve

ii. Debenture Redemption Reserve

  1. Capital Reserve: Reserve which is created out of capital profit such as sale of some fixed asset is known as capital reserve. Here are some examples of capital reserves:

i. Premium on issue of debentures

ii. Premium on issue of shares

iii. Profit on sale of fixed assets

iv. Profit prior to incorporation

v. Profit on redemption of debentures

3. Secret Reserves− An amount that leads to undervaluing the assets of an organization or overestimation of liabilities is called as secret reserve. It is created with the purpose of hiding business profit from competitive organizations or competitors.

6. What are provisions? How are they created? Give accounting treatment in case of provision for doubtful Debts.

The actual amount of expenses or losses for the current accounting period cannot be determined with certainty as they have not been incurred yet. Net profit of the business can only be arrived after making a provision for such expenses or losses. A few examples of provisions are mentioned below:

  1. Provision for depreciation
  2. Provision for taxation
  3. Provision for bad and doubtful debts
  4. Provision for discount on debtors

Provisions are created by debiting the Profit and Loss Account on estimate basis. It is created on the basis of past experiences. A business may experience common losses, such as depreciation of fixed assets, taxation, etc. every year, which although are known; but, their exact amount in future period is unknown.

Therefore, a business always creates a provision based on certain percentage every year, which is purely based on the intuition and past experiences. These undetermined liabilities in form of provisions are kept aside, which will help future business activities, undisturbed from the future losses.

Accounting treatment for provision for doubtful debts is:

Profit and Loss A/c Dr.
To Provision for Doubtful Debts
(Provision for doubtful debts made)

Numerical Answers for NCERT Accountancy Solutions Class 11 Chapter 7

1. On April 01, 2010, Bajrang Marbles purchased a Machine for ₹ 1, 80,000 and spent ₹ 10,000 on its carriage and ₹ 10,000 on its installation. It is estimated that its working life is 10 years and after 10 years its scrap value will be ₹ 20,000.

(a) Prepare Machine account and Depreciation account for the first four years by providing depreciation on straight line method. Accounts are closed on March 31st every year.

(b) Prepare Machine account, Depreciation account and Provision for depreciation account (or accumulated depreciation account) for the first four years by providing depreciation using straight line method accounts are closed on March 31 every year.

Machine account and Depreciation account using depreciation on straight line method is as follows:

Books of Bajrang Marbles
(a)
Machinery Account
Dr. Cr.
Date Particulars J.F. Amount

Date Particulars J.F. Amount

2010 2011
Apr.01 Bank 2,00,000 Mar.31 Depreciation 18,000
Balance c/d 1,82,000
2,00,000 2,00,000
2011 2012
Apr.01 Balance b/d 1,82,000 Mar.31 Depreciation 18,000
Mar.31 Balance c/d 1,64,000
1,82,000 1,82,000
2012 2013
Apr.01 Balance b/d 1,64,000 Mar.31 Depreciation 18,000
Mar.31 Balance c/d 1,46,000
1,64,000 1,64,000
2013 2014
Apr.01 Balance b/d 1,46,000 Mar.31 Depreciation 18,000
Mar.31 Balance c/d 1,28,000
1,46,000 1,46,000

Hence, the closing balance of machinery account after 4 years is ₹. 1, 28,000.

Working notes: Calculation of annual depreciation

Cost of Asset= 1, 80,000 + 10,000 +10,000= 2, 00,000

Depreciation (p.a.) = (Original cost – Scrap Value )
Estimated Life of Asset (years)
= (1,80,000 + 10,000 + 10,000 – 20,000)
10
= ₹ 18,000/annum

The depreciation account is calculated as:

Depreciation Account
Dr. Cr.
Date Particulars J.F. Amount

Date Particulars J.F. Amount

2011 2011
Mar.31 Machinery 18,000 Mar.31 Profit and Loss 18,000
18,000 18,000
2012 2012
Mar.31 Machinery 18,000 Mar.31 Profit and Loss 18,000
18,000 18,000
2013 2013
Mar.31 Machinery 18,000 Mar.31 Profit and Loss 18,000
18,000 18,000
2014 2014
Mar.31 Machinery 18,000 Mar.31 Profit and Loss 18,000
18,000 18,000

(b)

Machinery Account
Dr. Cr.
Date Particulars J.F. Amount 

Date Particulars J.F. Amount

2010 2011
Apr.01 Bank 2,00,000 Mar.31 Balance c/d 2,00,000
2,00,000 2,00,000
2011 2012
Apr.01 Balance b/d 2,00,000 Mar.31 Balance c/d 2,00,000
2,00,000 2,00,000
2012 2013
Apr.01 Balance b/d 2,00,000 Mar.31 Balance c/d 2,00,000
2,00,000 2,00,000
2013 2014
Apr.01 Balance b/d 2,00,000 Mar.31 Balance c/d 2,00,000
2,00,000 2,00,000

Provision for Depreciation Account
Dr. Cr.
Date Particulars J.F. Amount

Date Particulars J.F. Amount

2011 2011
Mar.31 Balance c/d 18,000 Mar.31 Depreciation 18,000
18,000 18,000
2011
Apr.01 Balance b/d 18,000
 2012 2012
 Mar.31 Balance c/d  18,000 Mar.31 Depreciation 18,000
36,000 36,000
2012
Apr.01 Balance b/d 36,000
 2013 2013
 Mar.31 Balance c/d  54,000 Mar.31 Depreciation 18,000
54,000 54,000
2003
Apr.01 Balance b/d 54,000
 2014 2014
 Mar.31 Balance c/d  72,000 Mar.31 Depreciation 18,000
72,000 72,000

Hence, the provision for Depreciation account at the end of 4th Year is ₹.72, 000

Depreciation Account
Dr. Cr.
Date Particulars J.F. Amount

Date Particulars J.F. Amount

2011 2011
Mar.31 Provision for Depreciation 18,000 Mar.31 Profit and Loss 18,000
18,000 18,000
2012 2012
Mar.31 Provision for Depreciation 18,000 Mar.31 Profit and Loss 18,000
18,000 18,000
2013 2013
Mar.31 Provision for Depreciation 18,000 Mar.31 Profit and Loss 18,000
18,000 18,000
2014 2014
Mar.31 Provision for Depreciation 18,000 Mar.31 Profit and Loss 18,000
18,000 18,000

2. On July 01, 2010, Ashok Ltd. Purchased a Machine for ₹ 1, 08,000 and spent ₹ 12,000 on its installation. At the time of purchase it was estimated that the effective commercial life of the machine will be 12 years and after 12 years its salvage value will be ₹ 12,000.

Prepare machine account and depreciation Account in the books of Ashok Ltd. For first three years, if depreciation is written off according to straight line method. The account are closed on December 31st, every year.

The machine account and depreciation account are as follows:

Cost of Machine = ₹. (1, 08,000 + 12,000)

= ₹ 1, 20,000

Books of Ashok Ltd.
Machinery Account
Dr. Cr.
Date Particulars J.F. Amount

Date Particulars J.F. Amount

2010 2010
Jul.01 Bank 1,20,000 Dec.31 Depreciation 4,500
Dec.31 Balance c/d 1,15,500
1,20,000 1,20,000
2011 2011
Jan.01 Balance b/d 1,15,500 Dec.31 Depreciation 9,000
Dec.31 Balance c/d 1,06,500
1,15,000 1,15,500
2012 2012
Jan.01 Balance b/d 1,06,500 Dec.31 Depreciation 9,000
Dec.31 Balance c/d 97,500
1,06,500 1,06,500
2013
Jan.01 Balance b/d 97,500

Hence, the closing balance after three years is ₹ 97,500.

Working notes: Calculation of annual depreciation

Depreciation (p.a.) = (Original cost – Scrap Value )
Estimated Life of Asset (years)
Depreciation = (1,08,000 + 12,000 – 12,000)
12
= ₹ 9,000
Depreciation Account
Dr. Cr.
Date Particulars J.F. Amount

Date Particulars J.F. Amount

2010 2010
Dec.31 Machinery 4,500 Dec.31 Profit and Loss 4,500
4,500 4,500
2011 2011
Dec.31 Machinery 9,000 Dec.31 Profit and Loss 9,000
9,000 9,000
2012 2012
Dec.31 Machinery 9,000 Dec.31 Profit and Loss 9,000
9,000 9,000

3. Reliance Ltd. purchased a second hand machine for ₹ 56,000 on October 01, 2011 and spent ₹ 28,000 on its overhaul and installation before putting it to operation. It is expected that the machine can be sold for ₹ 6,000 at the end of its useful life of 15 years. Moreover an estimated cost of ₹ 1,000 is expected to be incurred to recover the salvage value of ₹ 6,000. Prepare machine account and Provision for depreciation account for the first three years charging depreciation by fixed Instalment Method. Accounts are closed on March 31, every year.

Machine account and provision for depreciation account are as follows:

Books of Reliance Ltd.
Machinery Account
Dr. Cr.
Date Particulars J.F. Amount

Date Particulars J.F. Amount

2011 2011
Oct.01 Bank 84,000
Dec.31 Balance c/d 84,000
84,000 84,000
2012 2012
Jan.01 Balance b/d 84,000
Dec.31 Balance c/d 84,000
84,000 84,000
2013 2013
Jan.01 Balance b/d 84,000
Dec.31 Balance c/d 84,000
84,000 84,000
Provision for Depreciation  Account
Dr. Cr.
Date Particulars J.F. Amount

Date Particulars J.F. Amount

2011
Dec.31 Depreciation 1,316
2011
Dec.31 Balance c/d 1,316
1,316 1,316
2012
Jan.01 Balance b/d 1,316
2012 Dec.31 Depreciation 5,267
Dec.31 Balance c/d 6,583
6,583 6,583
2013
Jan.01 Balance b/d 6,583
2013 Dec.31 Depreciation 5,267
Dec.31 Balance c/d 11,850
11,850 11,850
2014
Jan.01 Balance b/d 11,850

As per the solution the balance of provision for depreciation account is ₹. 11,850

Working Note:

Calculation of annual depreciation

Depreciation (p.a.) = (Original cost – Scrap Value )
Estimated Life of Asset (years)
Depreciation (p.a.) = (56,000 + 28,000 – 6,000 + 1,000)
15 years
= ₹ 5,267

4. Berlia Ltd. Purchased a second hand machine for ₹ 56,000 on July 01, 2015 and spent ₹ 24,000 on its repair and installation and ₹ 5,000 for its carriage. On September 01, 2016, it purchased another machine for ₹ 2, 50,000 and spent ₹ 10,000 on its installation.

(a) Depreciation is provided on machinery @10% p.a on original cost method annually on December 31. Prepare machinery account and depreciation account from the year 2015 to 2018.

(b) Prepare machinery account and depreciation account from the year 2015 to 2018, if depreciation is provided on machinery @10% p.a. on written down value method annually on December 31.

The machinery account and depreciation account are as follows:

Books of Berlia Ltd.

(a)

Machinery Account (Using Original Cost Method)
Dr. Cr.
Date Particulars J.F. Amount

Date Particulars J.F. Amount

2015 2015
Jul.01 Bank (i) 85,000 Dec.31 Depreciation 4,250
(5,600 + 24,000 + 5,000) Dec.31 Balance c/d 80,750
85,000 85,000
2016 2016
Jan.01 Balance b/d (i) 80,750 Dec.31 Depreciation
Sep.01 Bank (ii) 2,60,000 (i) 8,500, (ii) 8,667 17,167
(2,50,000 + 10,000) Dec.31 Balance c/d 3,23,583
(i) 72,250, (ii) 2,51,333
3,40,750 3,40,750
2017 2017
Jan.01 Balance b/d 3,23,583 Dec.31 Depreciation
(i) 72,250, (ii) 2,51,333 (i) 8,500, (ii) 26,000 34,500
Dec.31 Balance c/d
(i) 63,750, (ii) 2,25,333 2,89,083
3,23,583 3,23,583
2018 Balance b/d 2018
Jan.01 (i) 63,750, (ii) 2,25,333 2,89,083 Dec.31 Depreciation
(i) 8,500, (ii) 26,000 34,500
Dec.31 Balance c/d
(i) 55,250, (ii) 1,99,333 2,54,583
2,89,083 2,89,083

Hence, balance on machine account as on 1st Jan 2019 is ₹. 2, 54,583

Depreciation Account
Dr. Cr.
Date Particulars J.F. Amount

Date Particulars J.F. Amount

2015 2015
Dec.31 Machinery 4,250 Dec.31 Profit and Loss 4,250
4,250 4,250
2016 2016
Dec.31 Machinery Dec.31 Profit and Loss 17,167
(i) 8,500 (ii) 8,667 17,167
17,167 17,167
2017 2017
Dec.31 Machinery Dec.31 Profit and Loss 34,500
(i) 8,500 (ii) 26,000 34,500
34,500 34,500
2018 2018
Dec.31 Machinery 34,500 Dec.31 Profit and Loss 34,500
(i) 8,500 (ii) 26,000 34,500 34,500

Working notes: Calculation of depreciation per annum

(i) Depreciation on Machinery Purchased on July 01, 2015

= (56,000 + 24,000 + 5,000) × 10
100
= ₹ 8,500 pa

(ii) Depreciation on Machinery purchased on September 01, 2016.

= (2,50,000 + 10,000)  × 10
100
= ₹ 26,000 pa

(b)

Machinery Account (Written Down Value method)
Dr. Cr.
Date Particulars J.F. Amount 

Date Particulars J.F. Amount 

2015 2015
Jul.01 Bank (i) 85,000 Dec.31 Depreciation 4,250
(5,600 + 24,000 + 5,000) Dec.31 Balance c/d 80,750
85,000 85,000
2016 2016
Jan.01 Balance b/d (i) 80,750 Dec.31 Depreciation
Sep.01 Bank (ii) 2,60,000 (i) 8,075, (ii) 8,667 16,742
(2,50,000 + 10,000) Dec.31 Balance c/d
(i) 72,675, (ii) 2,51,333  3,24,008
3,40,750 3,40,750
2017 2017
Jan.01 Balance b/d 3,24,008 Dec.31 Depreciation
(i) 72,675, (ii) 2,51,333 (i) 7,268, (ii) 25,133 32,401
Dec.31 Balance c/d
(i) 65,407, (ii) 2,26,200 2,91,607
3,24,008 3,24,008
2018 Balance b/d 2018
Jan.01 (i) 65,407, (ii) 2,26,200 2,91,607 Dec.31 Depreciation
(i) 6,540, (ii) 22,620 29,160
Dec.31 Balance c/d
(i) 58,867, (ii) 2,03,580 2,62,447
2,91,607 2,91,607

Hence, balance on machine account as on 1st Jan 2019 is ₹ 2, 62,447

Depreciation Account
Dr. Cr.
Date Particulars J.F. Amount

Date Particulars J.F. Amount ₹
2015 2015
Dec.31 Machinery 4,250 Dec.31 Profit and Loss 4,250
4,250 4,250
2016 2016
Dec.31 Machinery Dec.31 Profit and Loss 16,742
(i) 8,075, (ii) 8,667 16,742
16,742 16,742
2017 2017
Dec.31 Machinery Dec.31 Profit and Loss 32,401
(i) 7,268, (ii) 25,133 32,401
32,401 32,401
2018 2018
Dec.31 Machinery Dec.31 Profit and Loss 29,160
(i) 6,540, (ii) 22,620 29,160
29,160 29,160

5. Ganga Ltd. purchased a machinery on January 01, 2014 for ₹ 5, 50,000 and spent ₹ 50,000 on its installation. On September 01, 2014 it purchased another machine for ₹ 3, 70,000. On May 01, 2016 it purchased another machine for ₹ 8, 40,000 (including installation expenses).

Depreciation was provided on machinery @10% p.a. on original cost method annually on December 31. Prepare:

(a) Machinery account and depreciation account for the years 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2017.

(b) If depreciation is accumulated in provision for Depreciation account then prepare machine account and provision for depreciation account for the years 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2017.

The machinery account and depreciation account are as follows:

(a)

Books of Ganga Ltd.
Machinery Account
Dr. Cr.
Date Particulars J.F. Amount

Date Particulars J.F. Amount

2014 2014
Jan.01 Bank (i) 6,00,000 Dec.31 Depreciation

(i) 60,000 (ii) 12,333

72,333
(5,50,000 + 50,000) Dec.31 Balance c/d
Sep.01 Bank (ii) 3,70,000 (i) 5,40,000, (ii) 3,57,667 8,97,667
9,70,000 9,70,000
2015 2015
Jan.01 Balance b/d Dec.31 Depreciation
(i) 5,40,000, (ii) 3,57,667 8,97,667 (i) 60,000, (ii) 37,000,
May.01 Bank (iii) 8,40,000 (iii) 56,000 1,53,000
Dec.31 Balance c/d
(i) 4,80,000 (ii) 3,20,667,
(iii) 7,84,000 15,84,667
17,37,667 17,37,667
2016 2016
Jan.01 Balance b/d Dec.31 Depreciation
(i) 4,80,000, (ii) 3,20,667 (i) 60,000, (ii) 37,000,
(iii) 7,84,000 15,84,667 Dec.31 (iii) 84,000 1,81,000
Balance c/d
(i) 4,20,000, (ii) 2,83,667,
(iii) 7,00,000 14,03,667
15,84,667 15,84,667
2017 2017
Jan.01 Balance b/d Dec.31 Depreciation
(i) 4,20,000, (ii) 2,83,667, (i) 60,000, (ii) 37,000,
(iii) 7,00,000 14,03,667 (iii) 84,000 1,81,000
Dec.31 Balance c/d
(i) 3,60,000, (ii) 2,46,667,
(iii) 6,16,000 12,22,667
14,03,667 14,03,667

The balance of machine account is ₹.12, 22,667.

Depreciation Account
Dr. Cr.
Date Particulars J.F. Amount ₹ Date Particulars J.F. Amount ₹
2014 2014
Dec.31 Machinery 72,333 Dec.31 Profit and Loss 72,333
72,333 72,333
2015 2015
Dec.31 Machinery 1,53,000 Dec.31 Profit and Loss 1,53,000
1,53,000 1,53,000
2016 2016
Dec.31 Machinery 1,81,000 Dec.31 Profit and Loss 1,81,000
1,81,000 1,81,000
2017 2017
Dec.31 Machinery 1,81,000 Dec.31 Profit and Loss 1,81,000
1,81,000 1,81,000

(b)

Machinery Account 
Dr. Cr.
Date Particulars J.F. Amount

Date Particulars J.F. Amount

2014 2014
Jan.01 Bank (i) 6,00,000
(5,50,000 + 50,000) Dec.31 Balance c/d
Sep.01 Bank (ii) 3,70,000 9,70,000
9,70,000 9,70,000
2015 2015
Jan.01 Balance b/d
(i) 6,00,000 (ii) 3,70,000 9,70,000
May.01 Bank (iii) 8,40,000 Dec.31 Balance c/d 18,10,000
18,10,000 18,10,000
2016 2016
Jan.01 Balance b/d Dec.31 Balance c/d 18,10,000
(i) 6,00,000 (ii) 3,70,000
(iii) 8,40,000 18,10,000
18,10,000 18,10,000
2017 2017
Jan.01 Balance b/d Dec.31 Balance c/d 18,10,000
(i) 6,00,000 (ii) 3,70,000
(iii) 8,40,000 18,10,000
18,10,000 18,10,000
Provision for Depreciation  Account
Dr. Cr.
Date Particulars J.F. Amount

 ₹

Date Particulars J.F. Amount 

2014 2014
Dec.31 Balance c/d 72,333 Dec.31 Depreciation 72,333
72,333 72,333
2015
2015 Jan.01 Balance b/d 72,333
Dec.31 Balance c/d 2,25,333 Dec.31 Depreciation 1,53,000
2,25,333 2,25,333
2016
2016 Jan.01 Balance b/d 2,25,333
Dec.31 Balance c/d 4,06,333 Dec.31 Depreciation 1,81,000
4,06,333 4,06,333
2017
2017 Jan.01 Balance b/d 4,06,333
Dec.31 Balance c/d 5,87,333 Dec.31 Depreciation 1,81,000
5,87,333 5,87,333

The provision for depreciation account has a balance of ₹. 5, 87,333

6. Azad Ltd. purchased furniture on October 01, 2014 for ₹ 4, 50,000. On March 01, 2015 it purchased another furniture for ₹ 3, 00,000. On July 01, 2016 it sold off the first furniture purchased in 2014 for ₹ 2, 25,000. Depreciation is provided at 15% p.a. on written down value method each year. Accounts are closed each year on March 31. Prepare furniture account, and accumulated depreciation account for the years ended on March 31, 2015, March 31, 2016 and March 31, 2017. Also give the above two accounts if furniture disposal account is opened.

The furniture account and accumulated depreciation account are as follows:

Books of Azad Ltd.
Furniture Account
Dr. Cr.
Date Particulars J.F. Amount ₹ Date Particulars J.F. Amount 

2014 2015
Oct.01 Bank (i) 4,50,000
2015 Mar.31 Balance c/d 7,50,000
Mar.01 Bank (ii) 3,00,000
7,50,000 7,50,000
2015 2016
Apr.01 Balance b/d
(i) 4,50,000, (ii) 3,00,000 7,50,000 Mar.31 Balance c/d 7,50,000
7,50,000 7,50,000
2016 2016
Apr.01 Balance b/d 7,50,000 July 01 Furniture Disposal 4,50,000
(i) 4,50,000, (ii) 3,50,000 2005
Mar.31 Balance c/d 3,00,000
7,50,000 7,50,000
Accumulated Depreciation Account
Dr. Cr.
Date Particulars J.F. Amount 

Date Particulars J.F. Amount

 ₹

2015 2015
Mar.31 Balance c/d 37,500 Mar.31 Depreciation
(i) 33,750, (ii) 3,750 37,500
37,500 37,500
2016 2015
Mar.31 Balance c/d 1,44,376 Apr.01 Balance b/d 37,500
2016
Mar.31 Depreciation
(i) 62,438, (ii) 44,378 1,06,876
1,44,376 1,44,376
2016 2016
July.01 Furniture Disposal 1,09,456 Apr.01 Balance b/d 1,44,376
2017 July.01 Depreciation (i) 13,268
Mar.31 Balance c/d 85,960 2017
Mar.31 Depreciation (ii) 37,772
1,95,416 1,95,416

Hence, the balance of provision of depreciation account is ₹. 85,960.

Furniture Disposal Account
Dr. Cr.
Date Particulars J.F. Amount ₹ Date Particulars J.F. Amount 

2016 2016
Jul.01 Furniture 4,50,000 Jul.01 Accumulated Dep. 1,09,456
Jul.01 Bank 2,25,000
Jul.01 Profit and Loss (Loss) 1,15,544
4,50,000 4,50,000

Working Note:

Furniture (i)

Years Opening Balance Depreciation Closing Balance
2014 – 2015 4,50,000 33,750 = 4,16,250
2015 – 2016 4,16,250 62,438 = 3,53,812
2016 3,53,812 13,268 (3 months) = 3,40,544
1,09,456
Balance on July 01, 2016 3,40,544
Less: Sale on July 01, 2016 (2,25,000)
Loss on sale of furniture 1,15,544

So, we see that Loss on sale of furniture is ₹ 1, 15,544.

7. M/s Lokesh Fabrics purchased a Textile Machine on April 01, 2011 for ₹ 1, 00,000. On July 01, 2012 another machine costing ₹ 2, 50,000 was purchased. The machine purchased on April 01, 2011 was sold for ₹ 25,000 on October 01, 2015. The company charges depreciation @15% p.a. on straight line method. Prepare machinery account and machinery disposal account for the year ended March 31, 2016.

 Machinery account and Machinery disposal account are prepared below:

Books of M/s. Lokesh Fabrics
Machinery Account
Dr. Cr.
Date Particulars J.F. Amount

Date Particulars J.F. Amount

2011 2012
Apr.01 Bank (i) 1,00,000 Mar.31 Depreciation 15,000
Mar.31 Balance c/d 85,000
1,00,000 1,00,000
2012 2013
Apr.01 Balance b/d 85,000 Mar.31 Depreciation
July.01 Bank (ii) 2,50,000 (i) 15,000 + 28,125 43,125
Mar.31 Balance c/d
(i) 70,000, (ii) 2,21,875 2,91,875
3,35,000 3,35,000
2013 2014
Apr.01 Balance b/d Mar.31 Depreciation
 (i) 70,000, (ii) 2,21,875 2,91,875 (i) 15,000, (ii) 37,500 52,500
Mar.31 Balance c/d
(i) 55,000, (ii) 1,84,375 2,39,375
2,91,875 2,91,875
2014 2015
Apr.01 Balance b/d Mar.31 Depreciation
(i) 5,500, (ii) 1,84,375 2,39,375 (i) 15,000, (ii) 37,500 52,500
Mar.31 Balance c/d
(i) 40,000, (ii) 1,46,875 1,86,875
2,39,375 2,39,375
2015 2015
Apr.01 Balance b/d Oct.01 Depreciation 7,500
(i) 40,000, (ii) 1,46,875 1,86,875 Oct.01 Machinery Disposal 32,500
2016
Mar.31 Depreciation (ii) 37,500
Mar.31 Balance c/d 1,09,375
1,86,875 1,86,875

Hence, the balance of machine account is ₹.1, 09,375

Machinery Disposal Account
Dr. Cr.
Date Particulars J.F. Amount

Date Particulars J.F. Amount

 ₹

2015 2015
Oct.01 Machinery 32,500 Oct.01 Bank 25,000
Oct.01 Profit and Loss 7,500
32,500 32,500

Here we see that Loss on sale of machine account is ₹. 7,500.

8. The following balances appear in the books of Crystal Ltd, on Jan 01, 2015

Machinery account on 15, 00,000

Provision for depreciation account 5, 50,000

On April 01, 2015 a machinery which was purchased on January 01, 2012 for ₹ 2, 00,000 was sold for ₹ 75,000. A new machine was purchased on July 01, 2015 for ₹ 6, 00,000. Depreciation is provided on machinery at 20% p.a. on Straight line method and books are closed on December 31 every year. Prepare the machinery account and provision for depreciation account for the year ending December 31, 2015.

Machinery account and provision for depreciation account is created below:

Machinery Account
Dr. Cr.
Date Particulars J.F. Amount

Date Particulars J.F. Amount

2015 2015
Jan.01 Balance b/d 15,00,000 Apr.01 Machinery Disposal 2,00,000
(13,00,000 + 2,00,000)
Jul.01 Bank 6,00,000 Dec.31 Balance c/d 19,00,000
21,00,000 21,00,000

Hence, balance of machinery account is ₹, 19, 00,000.

Provision for Depreciation Account
Dr. Cr.
Date Particulars J.F. Amount

 ₹

Date Particulars J.F. Amount

 ₹

2015 2015
Apr.01 Machinery Disposal 1,30,000 Jan.01 Balance b/d 5,50,000
Apr.01 Balance c/d 7,50,000 Apr.01 Depreciation 10,000
Dec.31 Depreciation
(i) 2,60,000, (ii) 60,000 3,20,000
8,80,000 8,80,000

Working Note for the solution:

Machine Sold on July 01, 2015

(i) Years Opening Balance Depreciation Closing Balance
2012 2,00,000 40,000 = 1,60,000
2013 1,60,000 40,000 = 1,20,000
2014 1,20,000 40,000 = 80,000
2015 80,000 10,000 = 70,000
Accumulated Depreciation = 1,30,000
Value on April 01, 2015 = (70,000)
Less: Sale = 75,000
Profit on sale of Machinery 5,000

From the above we see that profit on sale of machinery is ₹.5000.

Machinery Disposal Account
Dr. Cr.
Date Particulars J.F. Amount 

Date Particulars J.F. Amount ₹
2015 2015
Apr.01 Machinery 2,00,000 Apr.01 Provision for Depreciation 1,30,000
 Apr.01 Profit and Loss (Profit) 5,000 Apr.01 Bank 75,000
2,05,000 2,05,000

9. M/s. Excel Computers has a debit balance of ₹ 50,000 (original cost ₹ 1, 20,000) in computers account on April 01, 2010. On July 01, 2010 it purchased another computer costing ₹ 2, 50,000. One more computer was purchased on January 01, 2011 for ₹ 30,000. On April 01, 2014 the computer which has purchased on July 01, 2010 became obsolete and was sold for ₹ 20,000. A new version of the IBM computer was purchased on August 01, 2014 for ₹ 80,000. Show Computers account in the books of Excel Computers for the years ended on March 31 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015. The computer is depreciated @10 p.a. on straight line method basis.

The computer account is created below:

Books of M/s Excel Computers
Computer Account
Dr. Cr.
Date Particulars J.F. Amount

Date Particulars J.F. Amount 

2010 2011
Apr.01 Balance b/d (i) 50,000 Mar.31 Depreciation
Jul.01 Bank (ii) 2,50,000 (i) 12,000, (ii) 18,750,
2011 (iii) 750 31,500
Jan.01 Bank (iii) 30,000 Mar.31 Balance c/d
(i) 38,000, (ii) 2,31,250,
(iii) 29,250 2,98,500
3,30,000 3,30,000
2011 2012
Apr.01 Balance b/d Mar.31 Depreciation
(i) 38,000, (ii) 2,31,250, (i) 12,000 (ii) 25,000,
(iii) 29,250 2,98,500 (iii) 3,000 40,000
Mar.31 Balance c/d
(i) 26,000 (ii) 2,06,250,
(iii) 26,250 2,58,500
2,98,500 2,98,500
2012 2013
Apr.01 Balance b/d Mar.31 Depreciation
(i) 26,000 (ii) 2,06,250, (i) 12,000, (ii) 25,000, 40,000
(iii) 26,250 2,58,500 Mar.31 (iii) 3,000
Balance c/d
(i) 14,000, (ii) 1,81,250,
(iii) 23,250 2,18,500
2,58,500 2,58,500
2013 2014
Apr.01 Balance b/d Mar.31 Depreciation
(i) 14,000, (ii) 1,81,250, (i) 12,000, (ii) 25,000, 40,000
(iii) 23,250 2,18,500 (iii) 3,000
Mar.31 Balance c/d
(i) 2,000, (ii) 1,56,250,
(iii) 20,250 1,78,500
2,18,500 2,18,500
2014 2014
Apr.01 Balance c/d Apr.01 Bank (ii) 20,000
(i) 2,000, (ii) 1,56,250, Apr.01 Profit and Loss (Loss) 1,36,250
(iii) 20,250 1,78,500 2015
Aug.01 Bank (iv) 80,000 Mar.31 Depreciation 10,333
(i) 2,000, (iii) 3,000, (iv) 5,333
Mar.31 Balance c/d
(iii) 17,250, (iv) 74,667 91,917
2,58,500 2,58,500

Here the closing balance is ₹. 91,917

10. Carriage Transport Company purchased 5 trucks at the cost of ₹ 2, 00,000 each on April 01, 2011. The company writes off depreciation @ 20% p.a. on original cost and closes its books on December 31, every year. On October 01, 2013, one of the trucks is involved in an accident and is completely destroyed. Insurance company has agreed to pay ₹ 70,000 in full settlement of the claim. On the same date the company purchased a second hand truck for ₹ 1, 00,000 and spent ₹ 20,000 on its overhauling. Prepare truck account and provision for depreciation account for the three years ended on December 31, 2013. Also give truck account if truck disposal account is prepared.

Truck account and provision for depreciation account is prepared as follows:

Books of Carriage Transport Company
Truck Account
Dr. Cr.
Date Particulars J.F. Amount

Date Particulars J.F. Amount

2011 2011
Apr.01 Bank 10,00,000 Dec.31 Balance c/d 10,00,000
10,00,000 10,00,000
2012 2012
Jan.01 Balance b/d 10,00,000 Dec.31 Balance c/d 10,00,000
10,00,000 10,00,000
2013 2013
Jan.01 Balance b/d 10,00,000 Oct.01 Truck Disposal 2,00,000
Oct.01 Bank 1,20,000 Dec.31 Balance c/d 9,20,000
11,20,000 11,20,000

Hence, the balance of truck account is ₹. 9, 20,000.

Provision for Depreciation Account
Dr. Cr.
Date Particulars J.F. Amount

Date Particulars J.F. Amount

2011 2011
Dec.31 Balance c/d 1,50,000 Dec.31 Depreciation 1,50,000
1,50,000 1,50,000
2012 2012
Dec.31 Balance c/d 3,50,000 Jan.01 Balance c/d 1,50,000
Dec.31 Depreciation 2,00,000
3,50,000 3,50,000
2013 2013
Oct.01 Truck Disposal 1,00,000 Jan.01 Balance b/d 3,50,000
Oct.01 Balance c/d 4,46,000 Oct.01 Depreciation (9 Months) 30,000
Dec.31 Depreciation
(1,60,000 + 6,000) 1,66,000
5,46,000 5,46,000

Working Note for the solution:

Opening Balance Depreciation Closing Balance
Apr.01, 2011 2,00,000 30,000 = 1,70,000
Jan.01, 2012 1,70,000 40,000 = 1,30,000
Jan.01, 2013 1,30,000 30,000 = 1,00,000
Accumulated Depreciation = 1,00,000
Value on Oct.01, 2013 = 1,00,000
Less: Insurance Claim = 70,000
Loss on Accident 30,000

Hence, a total loss of ₹.30, 000 due to the accident is observed and the balance of provision for depreciation account is ₹. 4, 46,000.

Truck Disposal Account
Dr. Cr.
Date Particulars J.F. Amount 

Date Particulars J.F. Amount 

2013 2013
Oct.01 Truck 2,00,000 Oct.01 Provision for Depreciation 1,00,000
Oct.01 Insurance Co. (Insurance Claim) 70,000
Oct.01 Profit and Loss (Loss) 30,000
2,00,000 2,00,000

11. Saraswati Ltd. purchased a machinery costing ₹ 10, 00,000 on January 01, 2011. A new machinery was purchased on 01 May, 2012 for ₹ 15, 00,000 and another on July 01, 2014 for ₹ 12, 00,000. A part of the machinery which originally cost ₹ 2, 00,000 in 2011 was sold for ₹ 75,000 on October 31, 2014. Show the machinery account, provision for depreciation account and machinery disposal account from 2011 to 2015 if depreciation is provided at 10% p.a. on original cost and account are closed on December 31, every year.

Machinery account, provision for depreciation account and machinery disposal account is displayed below:

Books of Saraswati Ltd.

Machinery Account

Dr. Cr.
Date Particulars J.F. Amount

Date Particulars J.F. Amount

2011 2011
Jan.01 Bank (i) 10,00,000
(8,00,000 + 2,00,000) Dec.31 Balance c/d 10,00,000
10,00,000 10,00,000
2012 2012
Jan.01 Balance b/d 10,00,000 Dec.31 Balance c/d 25,00,000
May.01 Bank (ii) 15,00,000
25,00,000 25,00,000
2013 2013
Jan.01 Balance b/d 25,00,000 Dec.31 Balance c/d 25,00,000
25,00,000 25,00,000
2014 2014
Jan.01 Balance b/d 25,00,000 Oct.31 Machinery Disposal 2,00,000
Jul.01 Bank (ii) 12,00,000 Dec.31 Balance c/d
(i) 8,00,000 (ii) 15,00,000
(iii) 12,00,000 35,00,000
37,00,000 37,00,000
2015 2015
Jan.01 Balance c/d 35,00,000 Dec.31 Balance c/d 35,00,000
35,00,000 35,00,000
Provision for Depreciation Account
Dr. Cr.
Date Particulars J.F. Amount ₹ Date Particulars J.F. Amount 

2011 2011
Dec.31 Balance c/d 1,00,000
Dec.31 Depreciation (i) 1,00,000
1,00,000 1,00,000
2012 2012
Dec.31 Balance c/d 3,00,000 Jan.01 Balance c/d 1,00,000
Dec.31 Depreciation
(i) 1,00,000 (ii) 1,00,000 2,00,000
(8 months)
3,00,000 3,00,000
2013 2013
Dec.31 Balance b/d 5,50,000 Jan.01 Balance c/d 3,00,000
Dec.31 Depreciation 2,50,000
5,50,000 (i) 1,00,000 (ii) 1,50,000, 5,50,000
2014 2014
Oct.31 Machinery Disposal 76,667 Jan.01 Balance b/d 5,50,000
Dec.31 Balance c/d 7,80,000 Oct.31 Depreciation 16,667
Dec.31 Depreciation
(i) 80,000, (ii) 1,50,000,
(iii) 60,000 2,90,000
8,56,667 8,56,667
2015 2015
Dec.31 Balance c/d 11,30,000 Jan.01 Balance c/d 7,80,000
Dec.31 Depreciation
(i) 80,000, (ii) 1,50,000,
(iii) 1,20,000 3,50,000
11,30,000 11,30,000
Machinery Disposal Account
Dr. Cr.
Date Particulars J.F. Amount

Date Particulars J.F. Amount

2014 2014
Oct.31 Machinery 2,00,000 Oct.31 Depreciation 76,667
Oct.31 Bank 75,000
Oct.31 Profit and Loss (Loss) 48,333
2,00,000 2,00,000

Working Note for solution:

Opening Balance Depreciation Closing Balance
2011 2,00,000 20,000 = 1,80,000
2012 1,80,000 20,000 = 1,60,000
2013 1,60,000 20,000 = 1,40,000
2014 1,40,000 16,667 = 1,23,333
Accumulated Depreciation 76,667
Value on Oct. 01, 2014 1,23,333
Sale on Oct. 01, 2014 – 75,000
Loss on sale ₹ 48,333

Hence, we see that a loss of ₹. 48,333 is observed in sale of machine.

12. On July 01, 2011 Ashwani purchased a machine for ₹ 2, 00,000 on credit. Installation expenses ₹ 25,000 are paid by cheque. The estimated life is 5 years and its scrap value after 5 years will be ₹ 20,000. Depreciation is to be charged on straight line basis. Show the journal entry for the year 2011 and prepare necessary ledger accounts for first three years. 

The journal entry is prepared as follows:

Books of Ashwani

Journal

Date Particulars L.F. Debit Amount ₹ Credit Amount ₹
2011
Jul.01 Machinery A/c Dr. 2,25,000
To Creditors for Machinery A/c 2,00,000
To Bank A/c 25,000
(Machinery bought on credit and ₹ 25,000 paid

for installation through cheque)

2011
Dec.31 Depreciation A/c Dr. 20,500
To Machinery A/c 20,500
(Depreciation charged on Machinery)
2011
Dec.31 Profit and Loss A/c Dr. 20,500
To Depreciation A/c 20,500
(Depreciation transferred to Profit and Loss Account)
2012
Dec.31 Depreciation A/c Dr. 41,000
To Machinery A/c 41,000
(Depreciation charged on Machinery)
2012
Dec.31 Profit and Loss A/c Dr. 41,000
To Depreciation A/c 41,000
(Depreciation transferred to Profit and Loss Account)
2013
Dec.31 Depreciation A/c Dr. 41,000
To Machinery A/c 41,000
(Depreciation charged on Machinery)
2013
Dec.31 Profit and Loss A/c Dr. 41,000
To Depreciation A/c 41,000
(Depreciation transferred to Profit and Loss Account)
Ledger

Machinery Account

Dr. Cr.
Date Particulars J.F. Amount 

Date Particulars J.F. Amount 

2011 2011
Jul.01 Creditors for Machinery 2,00,000 Dec.31 Depreciation 20,500
Jul.01 Bank 25,000 Dec.31 Balance c/d 2,04,500
2,25,000 2,25,000
2012 2012
Jan.01 Balance b/d 2,04,500 Dec.31 Depreciation 41,000
Dec.31 Balance c/d 1,63,500
2,04,500 2,04,500
2013 2013
Jan.01 Balance c/d 1,63,500 Dec.31 Depreciation 41,000
Dec.31 Balance c/d 1,22,500
1,63,500 1,63,500

Hence, balance of machine account is ₹. 1, 22,500.

Working Note for solution:

Calculation of annual depreciation is done below

Depreciation (p.a.) = (2,00,000 + 25,000 – 20,000)
5
= ₹ 41,000/annum

13. On October 01, 2010, a Truck was purchased for ₹ 8, 00,000 by Laxmi Transport Ltd. Depreciation was provided at 15% p.a. on the diminishing balance basis on this truck. On December 31, 2013 this Truck was sold for ₹ 5, 00,000. Accounts are closed on 31st March every year. Prepare a Truck Account for the four years.

The truck account is prepared below:

Books of Laxmi Transport Ltd.

Truck Account

Dr. Cr.
Date Particulars J.F. Amount

Date Particulars J.F. Amount

2010 2011
Oct.01 Bank 8,00,000 Mar.31 Depreciation (6 months) 60,000
Mar.31 Balance c/d 7,40,000
8,00,000 8,00,000
2011 2012
Apr.01 Balance b/d 7,40,000 Mar.31 Depreciation 1,11,000
Mar.31 Balance c/d 6,29,000
7,40,000 7,40,000
2012 2013
Apr.01 Balance b/d 6,29,000 Mar.31 Depreciation 94,350
 Mar.31 Balance c/d 5,34,650
6,29,000 6,29,000
2013 2013
Apr.01 Balance b/d 5,34,650 Dec.31 Depreciation (9 months) 60,148
Dec.31 Profit and Loss (Profit) 25,498 Dec.31 Bank 5,00,000
5,60,148 5,60,148

Working Note for solution:

For 2010-2011

8, 00,000 x x = 60,000

For 2011- 2012

8, 00,000 – 60,000= 7, 40,000

7, 40,000 x = 1, 11,000

For 2012-2013

7, 40,000- 1, 11,000 = 6, 29,000

6, 29,000 x = 94,350

For 2013- 2014

6, 29,000 – 94,350 = 5, 34,650

5, 34,650 x x = 60,148

Book Value = 5, 34,650 – 60,148

= 4, 74,502

Profit on sale of truck = Sale Price – Book Value

= 5, 00,000 – 4, 74,502 = 25,498

14. Kapil Ltd. purchased a machinery on July 01, 2011 for ₹ 3, 50,000. It purchased two additional machines, on April 01, 2012 costing ₹ 1, 50,000 and on October 01, 2012 costing ₹ 1, 00,000. Depreciation is provided @10% p.a. on straight line basis. On January 01, 2013, first machinery become useless due to technical changes. This machinery was sold for ₹ 1, 00,000, prepare machinery account for 4 years on the basis of calendar year.

The machinery account is created below:

Books of Kapil Ltd. 

Machinery Account

Dr. Cr.
Date Particulars J.F. Amount

Date Particulars J.F. Amount

2011 2011
Jul.01 Bank (i) 3,50,000 Dec.31 Depreciation (6 months) 17,500
Dec.31 Balance c/d 3,32,500
3,50,000 3,50,000
2012 2012
Jan.01 Balance c/d 3,32,500 Dec.31 Depreciation
Apr.01 Bank (ii) 1,50,000 (i) 35,000 (ii) 11,250 (9 months),
Oct.01 Bank (iii) 1,00,000 (iii) 2,500 (3 months) 48,750
Dec.31 Balance c/d
(i) 2,97,500, (ii) 1,38,750,
(iii) 97,500 5,33,750
5,82,500 5,82,500
2013 2013
Jan.01 (i) 2,97,500, (ii) 1,38,750, Jan.01 Bank (i) 1,00,000
(iii) 97,500 5,33,750 Jan.01 Profit and Loss (Loss) 1,97,500
Dec.31 Depreciation
(ii) 15,000 (iii) 10,000 25,000
Dec.31 Balance c/d
(ii) 1,23,750, (iii) 87,500 2,11,250
5,33,750 4,33,750
2014 2014
Jan.01 Balance c/d 2,11,250 Dec.31 Depreciation
(ii) 1,23,750, (iii) 87,500 Dec.31 (ii) 15,000, (iii) 10,000 25,000
Balance c/d
(ii) 1,08,750, (iii) 77,500 1,86,250
2,11,250 2,11,250
2015
Jan.01 Balance b/d 1,86,250

Hence, balance of machine account is ₹. 1, 86,250 and loss on sale of machine is ₹. 1, 97,500

15. On January 01, 2011, Satkar Transport Ltd, purchased 3 buses for ₹ 10, 00,000 each. On July 01, 2013, one bus was involved in an accident and was completely destroyed and ₹ 7, 00,000 were received from the Insurance Company in full settlement. Depreciation is written off @15% p.a. on diminishing balance method. Prepare bus account from 2011 to 2014. Books are closed on December 31 every year.

The bus account is prepared below:

Books of Satkar Transport Ltd.

Bus Account

Dr. Cr.
Date Particulars J.F. Amount 

Date Particulars J.F. Amount 

2011 2011
Jan.01 Bank 30,00,000 Dec.31 Depreciation 4,50,000
Dec.31 Balance c/d 25,50,000
30,00,000 30,00,000
2012 2012
Jan.01 Balance b/d 25,50,000 Dec.31 Depreciation 3,82,500
Dec.31 Balance c/d 21,67,500
25,50,000 25,50,000
2013 2013
Jan.01 Balance b/d 21,67,500 July.01 Depreciation (6 months) 54,187
July.01 Profit and Loss (Profit) 31,687 July.01 Insurance Co. (Insurance claim) 7,00,000
Dec.31 Depreciation 2,16,750
Dec.31 Balance c/d 12,28,250
21,99,187 21,99,187
2014 2014
Jan.01 Balance c/d 12,28,250 Dec.31 Depreciation 1,84,237
Dec.31 Balance c/d 10,44,013
12,28,250 12,28,250

Hence, the bus account balance is ₹. 10, 44,013.

16. On October 01, 2011 Juneja Transport Company purchased 2 Trucks for ₹ 10, 00,000 each. On July 01, 2013, One Truck was involved in an accident and was completely destroyed and ₹ 6, 00,000 were received from the insurance company in full settlement. On December 31, 2013 another truck was involved in an accident and destroyed partially, which was not insured. It was sold off for ₹ 1, 50,000. On January 31, 2014 Company purchased a fresh truck for ₹ 12, 00,000. Depreciation is to be provided at 10% p.a. on the written down value every year. The books are closed every year on March 31. Give the truck account from 2011 to 2014.

The truck account is prepared below:

Books of Juneja Transport Company

 Truck Account

Dr. Cr.
Date Particulars J.F. Amount

 ₹

Date Particulars J.F. Amount 

2011 2012
Oct.01 Bank 20,00,000 Mar.31 Depreciation 1,00,000
Mar.31 Balance c/d 19,00,000
20,00,000 20,00,000
2012 2013
Apr.01 Balance b/d 19,00,000 Mar.31 Depreciation 1,90,000
Mar.31 Balance c/d 17,10,000
19,00,000 19,00,000
2013 2013
Apr.01 Balance b/d 17,10,000 Jul.01 Depreciation (3 Month on one Truck) 21,375
Jul.01 Bank (Insurance Claim) 6,00,000
2014 Jul.01 Profit and Loss (loss) 2,33,625
Jan.31 Bank 12,00,000
Dec.31 Depreciation (9 Month on II Truck) 64,125
Dec.31 Bank 1,50,000
Dec.31 Profit and Loss (Loss) 6,40,875
2014
Mar.31 Depreciation (2 Months) 20,000
Mar.31 Balance c/d 11,80,000
29,10,000 29,10,000

Working Note:

For 1st Truck

Opening Balance Depreciation = Closing Balance
Oct.01, 2011 10,00,000 50,000 (6 Months) = 9,50,000
Apr.01, 2012 9,50,000 95,000 = 8,55,000
Apr.01, 2013 8,55,000 21,375 (3 Months) = 8,33,625
Value on July 01, 2013 = 8,33,625
Insurance Claim = –  6,00,000
Loss on 1st Truck = ₹ 2,33,625

For 2nd Truck

Opening Balance Depreciation = Closing Balance
Oct.01, 2012 10,00,000 50,000 (6 Months) = 9,50,000
Apr.01, 2012 9,50,000 95,000 = 8,55,000
Apr.01, 2013 8,55,000 64,125 (9 Months) = 7,90,875
Value on Dec.31, 2013 = 7,90,875
Sale of Truck = –  1,50,000
Loss on 2nd Truck = ₹ 6,40,875

Hence, the loss on truck 1 and truck 2 are ₹ 2, 33,625 and ₹ 6, 40,875 respectively.

17. A Noida based Construction Company owns 5 cranes and the value of this asset in its books on April 01, 2017 is ₹ 40,00,000. On October 01, 2017 it sold one of its cranes whose value was ₹ 5, 00,000 on April 01, 2017 at a 10% profit. On the same day it purchased 2 cranes for ₹ 4, 50,000 each. Prepare cranes account. It closes the books on December 31 and provides for depreciation on 10% written down value.

The cranes account is created below:

Cranes Account
Dr. Cr.
Date Particulars J.F. Amount

Date Particulars J.F. Amount

2017 2017
Apr.01 Machinery (35,00,000 + 5,00,000) 40,00,000 Oct.01 Depreciation 25,000
Oct.01 Profit and Loss (Profit) 47,500 Oct.01 Bank 5,22,500
Oct.01 Bank 9,00,000 Dec.31 Depreciation
35,00,000 × 10 × 9  = 2,62,500
100 12
9,00,000 × 10 × 6  = 22,500 2,85,000
100 12
Dec.31 Balance c/d
41,15,000
49,47,500 49,47,500

Working Note:

Original cost of Crane 1 = 5, 00,000

Accumulated Depreciation = Depreciation in 2011 – 2012

= 25,000

Book Value as on Oct 01, 2011

= Original Cost – Depreciation till Oct 01, 2011

= 5, 00,000 – 25,000

= 4, 75,000

Selling Price

= Book Value + 10% of Book Value

= 4, 75,000 + 10% of 4, 75,000

= 4, 75,000 + 47,500

= 5, 22,500

Profit on crane 1

= Sale Price – Book Value

= 5, 22,500 – 4, 75,000

= 47,500

18. Shri Krishnan Manufacturing Company purchased 10 machines for ₹ 75,000 each on July 01, 2014. On October 01, 2016, one of the machines got destroyed by fire and an insurance claim of ₹ 45,000 was admitted by the company. On the same date another machine is purchased by the company for ₹ 1, 25,000. The company writes off 15% p.a. depreciation on written down value basis. The company maintains the calendar year as its financial year. Prepare the machinery account from 2014 to 2017.

The machinery account is prepared below:

Books of Shri Krishna Manufacturing Company

Machinery Account

Dr. Cr.
Date Particulars J.F. Amount

Date Particulars J.F. Amount

2014 2014
Jul.01 Bank 7,50,000 Dec.31 Depreciation 56,250
Dec.31 Balance c/d 6,93,750
7,50,000 7,50,000
2015 2015
Jan.01 Balance b/d 6,93,750 Dec.31 Depreciation 1,04,063
Dec.31 Balance c/d 5,89,687
6,93,750 6,93,750
2016 2016
Jan.01 Balance b/d 5,89,687 Oct.01 Depreciation (9 months 6,634
for one machine)
Oct.01 Bank 1,25,000 Oct.01 Insurance Co. 45,000
Oct.01 Profit and Loss (Loss) 7,335
Dec.31 Depreciation
(i) 79,608, (ii) 4,688 84,296
Dec.31 Balance c/d
(i) 4,51,110, (ii) 1,20,312 5,71,422
7,14,687 7,14,687
2017 2017
Jan.01 Balance b/d Dec.31 Depreciation
(i) 4,51,110, (ii) 1,20,312 5,71,422 (i) 67,667, (ii) 18,047 85,714
Dec.31 Balance c/d
(i) 3,83,443, (ii) 1,02,265 4,85,708
5,71,422 5,71,422

 

Working Note:

Machine Costing ₹ 75,000 sold on Oct.01, 2016

Opening Balance Depreciation = Closing Balance
Jul.01, 2014 75,000 5,625

(6 months)

= 69,375
Jan.01, 2015 69,375 10,406 = 58,969
Jan.01, 2016 58,969 6,634

(9 months)

= 52,335
Value on Oct.01, 2016 52,335
Insurance Claim – 45,000
Loss ₹ 7,335

Hence we see that loss on vehicle claim was ₹. 7,335 and the balance is ₹, 4, 85,708

19. On January 01, 2014, a Limited Company purchased machinery for ₹ 20, 00,000. Depreciation is provided @15% p.a. on diminishing balance method. On March 01, 2016, one fourth of machinery was damaged by fire and ₹ 40,000 were received from the insurance company in full settlement. On September 01, 2016 another machinery was purchased by the company for ₹ 15, 00,000.

Write up the machinery account from 2016 to 2017. Books are closed on December 31, every year.

The machinery account is prepared as follows:

Machinery Account
Dr. Cr.
Date Particulars J.F. Amount

Date Particulars J.F. Amount

2016 2016
Jan.01 Balance b/d (i)

(10,83,750 + 3,61,250)

14,45,000 Mar.01 Depreciation (1/4 Machine

for 2 Months)

9,031
Sep.01 Bank (ii) 15,00,000 Mar.01 Bank 40,000
Mar.01 Profit and Loss 3,12,219
Dec.31 Depreciation (i)
(i) 1,62,563 (3/4th of  machine),

(ii) 75,000

2,37,563
Dec.31 Balance c/d
(i) 9,21,187, (ii) 14,25,000 23,46,187
29,45,000 29,45,000
2017 2017
Jan.01 Balance b/d Dec.31 Depreciation
(i) 9,21,187, (ii) 14,25,000 23,46,187 Dec.31 (i) 1,38,177, (ii) 2,13,750 3,51,927
Balance c/d
(i) 7,83,009, (ii) 12,11,250 19,94,260
23,46,187 23,46,187

 

Working Note:

 

Machine (i)

Years January 01 Depreciation

(15% p.a.)

= Closing Balance
2014 20,00,000 3,00,000 = 17,00,000
2015 17,00,000 2,55,000 = 14,45,000
2016 14,45,000

1/4th of Machine that was damaged (i)

Years Opening Balance Depreciation

(15% p.a.)

= Closing Balance
2014 5,00,000 75,000 = 4,25,000
2015 4,25,000 63,750 = 3,61,250
2016 3,61,250 9,031 (2 months) = 3,52,219

 

Value on 1 Mar. 2016 = 3,52,219
Insurance Claim = 40,000
Loss ₹ 3,12,219

Hence, the loss on one-fourth of 1st machine is ₹, 3, 12,219 and the balance for machine account is ₹.19, 94,260.

20. A Plant was purchased on 1st July, 2015 at a cost of ₹ 3, 00,000 and ₹ 50,000 were spent on its installation. The depreciation is written off at 15% p.a. on the straight line method. The plant was sold for ₹ 1, 50,000 on October 01, 2017 and on the same date a new Plant was installed at the cost of ₹ 4, 00,000 including purchasing value. The accounts are closed on December 31 every year.

Show the machinery account and provision for depreciation account for 3 years

Machinery account and provision for depreciation account is shown below:

Plant Account
Dr. Cr.
Date Particulars J.F. Amount

Date Particulars J.F. Amount

2015 2015
July.01 Bank 3,50,000 Dec.31 Balance c/d 3,50,000
3,50,000 3,50,000
2016 2016
Jan.01 Balance b/d 3,50,000
Dec.31 Balance c/d 3,50,000
3,50,000 3,50,000
2017 2017
Jan.01 Balance b/d 3,50,000 Oct.01 Provision for Depreciation 1,18,125
Oct.01 Bank 4,00,000 Oct.01 Bank 1,50,000
Oct.01 Profit and Loss 81,875
Dec.31 Balance c/d 4,00,000
7,50,000 7,50,000
Provision for Depreciation Account
Dr. Cr.
Date Particulars J.F. Amount

Date Particulars J.F. Amount

2015 2015
Dec.31 Balance c/d 26,250 Dec.31 Depreciation 26,250
26,250 26,250
2016 2016
Dec.31 Balance b/d 78,750 Jan.01 Balance c/d 26,250
Dec.31 Depreciation 52,500
78,750 78,750
2017 2017
Oct.01 Plant 1,18,125 Jan.01 Balance b/d 78,750
 Dec.31 Balance c/d 15,000 Oct.01 Depreciation (i) (9 months) 39,375
Dec.31 Depreciation (ii) (3 months) 15,000
1,33,125 1,33,125

Hence, the loss on sale of plant is ₹ 81,875 and the balance of machine account is ₹. 4, 00,000.

21. An extract of Trial balance from the books of Tahiliani and Sons Enterprises on March 31, 2017 is given below:

Name of the Account Debit Amount

Credit Amount

     
Sundry debtors 50,000  
Bad debts 6,000  
Provision for doubtful debts   4,000

 

Additional Information:

  •          Bad Debts proved bad; however, not recorded amounted to ₹ 2,000.
  •          Provision is to be maintained at 8% of debtors

Give necessary accounting entries for writing off the bad debts and creating the provision for doubtful debts account. Also, show the necessary accounts.

The solution is given below:

Date Particulars L.F. Debit Amount ₹ Credit Amount ₹
Bad Debt A/c Dr. 2,000
To Debtors A/c 2,000
(Further bad debt charged from Debtors Account)
Provision for Doubtful Debt A/c Dr. 8,000
To Bad Debt A/c 8,000
(Amount of bad debt transferred to

Provision for Doubtful Debt Account)

Profit and Loss A/c Dr. 7,840
To Provision for Doubtful Debt A/c 7,840
(Amount of Provision for Doubtful Debt transferred

to Profit and Loss Account)

Bad Debt Account
Dr. Cr.
Date Particulars J.F. Amount 

Date Particulars J.F. Amount

 ₹

2017 2017
Mar.31 Balance b/d 6,000 Mar.31 Provision for Doubtful
Mar.31 Debtors 2,000 Debt  8,000
8,000 8,000
Debtors Account
Dr. Cr.
Date Particulars J.F. Amount 

Date Particulars J.F. Amount

 ₹

2017 2017
Mar.31 Balance b/d 50,000 Mar.31 Bad Debt 2,000
Mar.31 Balance c/d 48,000
50,000 50,000
Provision for Doubtful Debts Account
Dr. Cr.
Date Particulars J.F. Amount 

Date Particulars J.F. Amount

 ₹

2017 2017
31 Mar. Bad Debt (6,000 + 2,000) 8,000 Apr.01 Balance b/d 4,000
31 Mar. Balance c/d (8% of 50,000-2,000) 3,840 Mar.31 Profit and Loss 7,840
11,840 11,840

Hence, the new provision for bad debts is ₹, 3,840 and profit and loss account balance is ₹.7840.

22. The following information is extracted from the Trial Balance of M/s Nisha Traders on 31 March 2017.

Sundry Debtors 80,500
Bad Debts 1,000
Provision for Bad Debts 5,000

 

Additional Information

Bad Debts ₹ 500

Provision is to be maintained at 2% of Debtors

Prepare bad debts account, Provision for bad debts account and profit and loss account.

The bad debts account, Provision for bad debts account and profit and loss account are shown below:

Bad Debt Account
Dr. Cr.
Date Particulars J.F. Amount

Date Particulars J.F. Amount

2017 2017
Mar.31 Balance b/d 1,000 Mar.31 Provision for Bad Debts 1,500
Mar.31 Debtors 500
1,500 1,500
Provision for Bad debt Account
Dr. Cr.
Date Particulars J.F. Amount

Date Particulars J.F. Amount

2017 2017
Mar.31 Bad Debt 1,500 Mar.31 Balance b/d 5,000
Mar.31 Profit and Loss 1,900
Mar.31 Balance c/d (2% of 80,500-500) 1,600
5,000 5,000
Profit and Loss Account
Dr. Cr.
Date Particulars J.F. Amount

Date Particulars J.F. Amount 

2017
 Mar.31 Provision for Bad Debts 1,900

Hence, the new provision is ₹. 1600 and the profit and loss account shows as a credit of ₹.1900.

Concepts covered in this chapter –

  • Depreciation
  • Meaning of Depreciation
  • Features of Depreciation
  • Depreciation and other Similar Terms
  • Depletion
  • Amortisation
  • Causes of depreciation
  • Obsolescence
  • Matching of Costs and Revenue
  • Cost of asset
  • Depreciable cost
  • Estimated useful life
  • Methods of calculating depreciation amount
  • Straight Line Method
  • Written Down Value Method
  • Annual Charge of Depreciation

Conclusion

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Accountancy Chapter 7 provides a wide degree of illustrative examples; which assists the students to comprehend and learn quickly. The above mentioned are the illustrations for the Class 11 CBSE syllabus. For more solutions and study materials of NCERT solutions for Class 11 Accountancy, visit BYJU’S or download the app for more information.

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