Heredity and Evolution Class 10 Notes

What is Heredity

Heredity is defined as the sum of all biological processes through which particular genetic characteristics are transmitted from the parents to their offspring. This process is observed in all sexual reproduction and happens during meiosis and fertilization. In this process, an offspring get their genetic information from both the parents- mother and father.

Genetics is a branch of science which mainly deals with the study of the genes, heredity, and other genetic variation, in living organisms.

Gregor Mendel, a German scientist is known as the Father of Genetics. He conducted immense research and several experiments on pea plants and discovered the fundamental laws of inheritance. As per Mendel’s experiments, Laws of Inheritance can be summarized under the following categories:

  • Law of Dominance
  • Law of Segregation
  • Principle of Independent Assortment

What is Evolution

Evolution can be defined as the changes in the heritable characteristics of the progeny over successive generations. According to Darwin’s theory of Evolution, evolution takes place through the process of natural selection. Charles Robert Darwin, a naturalist, geologist, and biologist, provided many theories and ideas on Evolution, therefore he is considered as the father of Evolution.

Few Important Questions

  • What are fossils? Explain its importance.
  • What is speciation? Explain with its types and examples.
  • List out the factors involved in the formation of new species?
  • Explain the following terms with examples.
    1. Inherited Traits.
    2. Human Evolution.
    3. Analogous and Homologous organs.
    4. Dominant trait and Recessive traits.

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