The term morphology of flowering plants mainly refers to the study of external features of flowering plants. The external parts include –Root system and the shoot system.
The Root system is the underground part of the plant and which is developed from the seed embryo. The main functions of the roots are to provide support to the plant, storage of food and nutrients and absorb of water and other essential nutrients required for the growth and development. There are three different types of roots.
- Taproot – Carrot, and Radish are examples of tap root plants.
- Fibrous root -Wheat, Rice, and Maize are examples of fibrous root plants.
- Adventitious root – Oak trees and Cypress are examples of adventitious root plants.
The Shoot system is the aerial part of the plant which is above the root and ground level. This shoot system includes the stem, leaves and the flower.
- The stem is the part of the shoot system that bears leaves, flower, buds, and fruits. The primary function of the stem is to transport the fluids between the root and the shoot system, Support for and the elevation of leaves, flowers, and fruits, Production of new living tissue and store of nutrients.
- Leaves are the vital organ of a plant which plays important role in the biological process of photosynthesis.
- The flower is the reproductive structure of a flowering plant. The flower is also known as bloom or blossom. The main biological function of a flower is the development of seeds and fruits. Most of the flowers are bright in colour in order to attract animals, birds and other insects for the transfer of pollen grain. The external parts of a flower include -sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels.