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Chapter 8: Cell Structure and Functions

  1. Indicate whether the following statements are True or False.

a) Unicellular organisms have a one-celled body.

b) Muscle cells are branched.

c) The basic living unit of an organism is an organ.

d) Amoeba has irregular shape.

 

Ans.

a) True

b) False

c) False

d) True

 

  1. Make a sketch of the human nerve cell. What function do nerve cells perform?

Ans.

2

The main function of the nerve cell is to transmit messages to the brain from receptor organs and vice versa. It has a control over the working of different parts of the body.

 

  1. Write short notes on the following

a) Cytoplasm

b) Nucleus of a cell

Ans.

(a) Cytoplasm:

Cytoplasm is a fluid that contains all the cell organelles such as the Mitochondria, Ribosomes, Golgi bodies, etc. It is present between the nucleus and the plasma membrane. It helps in the exchange of materials between cell organelles. It is made up of eighty percent water and is usually clear and colorless.

(b) Nucleus of a cell:

The Nucleus is a double-membrane bound cell organelle present in eukaryotic cells. It contains the DNA, the genetic material. It is the command center of the cell and is spherical in shape. It has the following components:

3

  • Nuclear membrane
  • Nucleolus
  • Chromosomes
  1. Nuclear membrane:

It has is a double-layered membrane. It separates the contents of the nucleus from the cytoplasm and acts as a wall. It has pores that allow the transfer certain substances in and out of the cell.

2. Nucleolus:

It is a small dense spherical body. It is not bound by any membrane.

3. Chromosome:

These are thread-like structures that carry genes. All the necessary information required for the transfer of characteristics from the parents to the offspring are stored in the genes. Inheritance of characteristics is possible only because of chromosomes.

 

  1. Which part of the cell contains organelles?

Ans.

Various cell organelles are present in the cytoplasm. It is a clear and colorless fluid that contains organelles like Mitochondria, Ribosomes, Golgi bodies.

 

  1. State the difference between Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes.

Ans.

 

Prokaryotes Eukaryotes
Most of them are unicellular Most of them are multicellular
There is no nuclear membrane. So, the nucleus is poorly defined. There is a nuclear membrane. So, the nucleus is well defined.
Not all cell organelles are present All the cell organelles are present.
Nucleolus is absent Nucleolus is present
Eg: Blue green algae, Bacteria Eg: Plant, Animal cells and Fungi.

 

  1. Where are chromosomes found in a cell? State their function.

Ans.

Chromosomes are thread-like structures present in the nucleus that carry genes. All the necessary information required for the transfer of characteristics from the parents to the offspring are stored in the genes. Inheritance of characteristics is possible only because of chromosomes.

 

7. ’Cells are the basic structural units of living organisms’. Explain.

Ans.

Various components of plants and animals are constituted by cells. It is the smallest unit of life and is capable of all living functions. They are the building blocks of life. That is the reason why cells are referred to as ‘the basic structural and functional blocks of life’.

Cells exist in various shapes and sizes and perform a wide range of activities.

Their shapes and sizes are related to the function it performs.

 

  1. Explain why chloroplasts are found only in plant cells.

Ans.

Only plant cells contain chloroplasts. They contain Chlorophyll, a green pigment. This pigment is essential for photosynthesis. It manufactures food for the plants with the help of the sunlight that it traps.

8

  1. Complete the crossword

Across

  1. This is necessary for photosynthesis.
  2. Term for component present in the cytoplasm.
  3. The living substance in the cell.
  4. Units of inheritance present on the chromosomes.

 

Down

  1. Green plastids.
  2. Formed by the collection of tissues.
  3. It separates the content of the cell from the surrounding medium.
  4. Empty structure in the cytoplasm.
  5. A group of cells.

9.1

Answer:

 

Across

  1. Chlorophyll
  2. Organelle
  3. Protoplasm
  4. Genes

 

Down

  1. Chloroplasts
  2. Organ
  3. Membrane
  4. Vacuole
  5. Tissue

9.2

  1. Make sketches of animal and plant cells. State three differences between them.

Ans.

Plant cell

10.1

Animal Cell

10.2

 

Plant cell Animal cell
They are large in size They are smaller than plant cells
Cell wall is present Cell wall is absent
Vacuoles are large Vacuoles are small
Plastids could be seen Except for Euglena, Plastids could not be seen in animal cells.

 



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