Matter In Our Surroundings Class 9 Notes - Chapter 1

Everything that we see around us is made up of matter. Even the air that we breathe is made up of matter. But what exactly is matter, and is everything really made up of matter?

Physical Nature of Matter

Abstract concepts like memories, thoughts are not considered as matter because they do not occupy any physical dimension or space. Essentially, the matter in our surroundings from sand, trees, building and even the air has a certain mass and occupies space. This characteristic feature of taking up space and having a mass constitutes matter.

States of Matter

We know that matter consists of particles and the arrangement of these particles change the way matter is formed. Based on the arrangement, there are 3 states of matter in our world, namely:

  1. Solid
  2. Liquid
  3. Gas

However, there are two more states of matter that are less common in nature, these are:

  1. Plasma
    • Examples of plasma include lightning. Stars such as our Sun is made of plasma.
  1. Bose-Einstein condensates
    • This state of matter was created in a laboratory and is hypothesized to exist at the heart of neutron stars.

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Practise This Question

If an atom of an element has 34 electrons in total, then what will be the outer most orbit of the atom and the number of valence electrons?