According to the CBSE Syllabus 2023-24, this chapter has been removed from NCERT Class 10 Science textbook.
Energy and Its Sources
- Energy is the ability to do work or the total power derived from our natural resources. The energy exists in many forms and can be converted from one form of energy into another. Energy in usable form is dissipated to the surroundings in less usable form.
- Energy is mainly derived from natural sources like the sun, oceans, fossil fuels, wind etc., and is converted into electrical energy that we consume for our daily needs and benefits.
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Renewable and Non-Renewable Sources of Energy
There are two main categories of energy – renewable and non-renewable sources of energy. Non-renewable energy resources are available in limited supplies and take a long time to replenish. Examples: Coal, nuclear energy, oil, etc.
Renewable energy sources, referred to as clean energy, are energy resources that are constantly replenished. Some examples of renewable energy sources include solar energy and wind energy.
A Good Source of Energy
- Sources can be classified as renewable and nonrenewable sources of energy.
- Any source of energy that does not get depleted or gets exhausted is considered a good source of energy and is usually called renewable.
What Is a Good Fuel?
A good source of energy/fuel should be:
- Easily available
- Easy to store and transport
- Able to perform large amounts of work per unit mass and volume
Know More: Properties of a Good Fuel
Conventional Sources of Energy
- Sources of energy that have been in use for a very long time or have been used extensively worldwide are known as conventional sources. E.g., wood is a common source of heat energy or the usage of coal after the Industrial Revolution.
- Examples: Fossil fuels, hydropower
- Conventional sources of energy are classified into types – commercial and non-commercial conventional sources of energy.
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- Fossil fuels are formed due to the compression of dead organic matter over millions of years, buried deep under the earth. E.g. coal or natural gas.
- We rely heavily on fossil fuels for most of our work.
- Fossil fuels are non-renewable sources of energy as they have limited reserves; hence, finding alternative sources is essential to avoid an energy crisis.
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Disadvantages of Burning Fossil Fuels
- Fossil fuels also produce byproducts due to combustion, which causes air pollution.
- Burning coal and petroleum produces harmful oxides of carbon, nitrogen, and sulphur, which pollute the air leading to acid rain and the greenhouse effect.
- Gases emitted by the combustion of fossil fuels are the main contributor to global warming.
Thermal Power Plants
- The thermal Power plant is a power generation station which burns fossil fuels like coal, petroleum, etc., to produce electricity.
- Thermal power plants use steam produced by burning fossil fuels (mainly coal) to move the turbines to generate electricity.
- The burning of coal heats up the water and forms steam that is used to run the turbine.
- Usually, Thermal power plants are located near coal or oil fields as it is easier to transmit electricity than transport coal.
- Another traditional source of energy is from the kinetic energy of flowing water or harnessing the potential energy of water falling from a height.
- The falling/flowing water moves the turbine, which with the help of a dynamo, converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.
- Hydropower plants are usually constructed near dams or waterfalls.
- A turbine is a rotatory mechanical device that extracts kinetic energy in various forms and converts it into useful work. It uses a dynamo to convert this mechanical energy into electrical energy.
- Various uses of this have been implemented in power plants where the shaft of the dynamo is made to rotate by mechanical means.
A dam is a barrier that impounds water or underground streams. The water is ejected upon requirement by the power plant to generate hydroelectricity.
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- Biomass is the source of energy derived from living things (organic matter). For a long time, we relied on wood as the source of heat energy. In India, we make fuel out of biowaste, such as cow dung, due to the availability of a thriving population of livestock.
- When wood is burnt in a limited supply of oxygen and water until volatile materials are removed, the residue left behind is charcoal. Charcoal has good heat-generating efficiency. It also burns without flames.
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- In India, cow dung, sewage waste, and plant matter are decomposed in the absence of oxygen to produce biogas. Since it has cow dung, it is often termed gobar gas.
- A biogas plant is a dome-like structure built with bricks where cow dung and other biowaste are mixed with water to form a slurry and put into a digester.
- The digester is a sealed chamber with anaerobic bacteria which breaks down the slurry.
- This decomposition process releases gases like methane, CO2, hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen.
- These gases are drawn via pipes which are transmitted to a turbine for the production of electricity.
Know More: Biogas Plant
- Environment-friendly efficient source of energy.
- Wind is a natural phenomenon caused by pressure differentials due to unequal heating of land and water masses on the surface of the earth. It is harnessed in the form of kinetic energy.
- Wind Energy is harnessed by rotatory structures known as windmills.
- They have huge blades or fans attached very high on a rigid support that is attached to turbines that rotate due to high speeds of wind and generate electricity.
- A single windmill has a low output, and therefore, wind farms are built comprising several windmills.
Know More: Wind Mill
Advantages and Limitations of Wind Energy
Advantages: Environment-friendly, efficient, renewable source, with no recurring cost for the production of electricity.
- Wind speeds should be constant and > 15 km/h.
- Must have backup storage facilities like cells.
- Requires large land area.
- High initial cost and regular maintenance are required.
- Light energy and heat energy from the sun is known as solar energy.
- Sun has been radiating energy for the past 5 billion years and will continue to do so at the same rate for another 5 billion years or more.
- We must find ways to harness the energy with maximum efficiency, although only a small fraction of the solar energy reaches the earth’s surface.
- Solar cookers and water heaters use solar energy to operate.
- Black surfaces absorb more energy than other surfaces, and solar cookers use this property by coating their insides black.
- They use reflecting surfaces like mirrors to focus the sun’s rays.
- The device is covered with a glass plate, thereby establishing the greenhouse effect by trapping heat inside the cooker.
- A device that converts solar energy into electricity is known as a solar cell.
- A typical solar cell produces a voltage of 0.5 1 V and 0.7 W of electrical power. A large number of such cells can combine to form a solar panel which can generate power large enough for practical uses.
- Advantages: (i) no moving parts, (ii) require little maintenance, (iii) can be set up in remote areas without the hassle and expenses of transmission lines.
- Disadvantages: (i) Requires special grade silicon which is not easily available, (ii) Usage of silver for interconnections makes it expensive.
- Uses: traffic signals, calculators, artificial satellites and space probes.
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Energy from the Sea
Energy from Sea
The seas and oceans, and other water bodies are a source of kinetic and potential energy due to the immense volume of water and the motion of waves.
- Tides are variations in the level of water due to the gravitational pull of the moon.
- The phenomenon of the rise and fall of water level or high and low tides gives tidal energy.
- Tidal energy is obtained by constructing dams near the narrow openings of the sea. When the tide sets in, it moves the turbine, which directly produces electricity.
- It is limited to places near the sea.
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- Waves possess a lot of kinetic energy that can be harnessed to produce electricity.
- Waves are produced by strong winds blowing over the sea.
- Limited to places with strong winds. Devices have been designed to capture this energy.
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Ocean Thermal Energy
- The difference in surface temperatures of water and water at a certain depth in oceans is exploited to harness this form of energy.
- Temperature difference must be 20∘ between the surface and water up to depths of 2 km.
- Warm water is used to boil volatile ammonia to form vapours that move the turbine. Cold water is used to condense the vapour back to liquid.
- There is a huge amount of heat trapped inside the earth. Molten rocks from Earth’s core sometimes come up due to geological changes and get trapped in hotspots. Harnessing this heat energy is called geothermal energy.
- Any underground water present gets heated due to the hotspots and gets converted to steam which escapes from the surface of the earth as hot springs.
- This steam is used to rotate turbines and generate electricity.
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- Nuclear energy can be used to generate electricity by means of nuclear fission.
- In a nuclear reactor, nuclear fuel is used to carry out sustained fission chain reactions to produce electricity at a controlled rate.
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Nuclear fission is the process where a heavy atom (uranium or plutonium) is bombarded with neutrons that split the atom to give lighter nuclei. This process releases tremendous amounts of energy. For example, the fission of 1 atom of uranium gives 10 million times the energy of combustion of 1 atom of carbon from coal.
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Disadvantages of Using Nuclear Energy
- Nuclear waste is hazardous as heavy atoms decay into harmful subatomic particles.
- High setup and maintenance costs.
- Limited availability of uranium.
- Can be used for destructive purposes.
- Fusion means combining lighter nuclei to produce a heavier nucleus, usually hydrogen or hydrogen isotopes, to create helium.
- It releases a huge amount of energy. The mass deficit between the product and reactants is given by Einstein’s equation. E=mc2
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Frequently Asked Questions on CBSE Class 10 Science Notes Chapter 14 Sources of Energy
What is a conventional resource?
Conventional sources of energy can be described as non-renewable sources of energy which have been used for a long time.
What is fossil fuel?
Fossil fuel is a hydrocarbon-containing material formed underground from the remains of dead plants and animals that humans extract and burn to release energy for use.
What are the types of fossil fuels?
1. Petroleum 2. Coal 3. Natural gas 4. Orimulsion