Carbon and its Compounds Class 10 Notes

Carbon is one of the most important and useful elements in the world. Air is a mixture of gasses which includes 0.0391 percent of carbon. It is the raw material for photosynthesis and is used in form of charcoal, graphite, etc. Carbon is found all around us. Food, fossil fuels, drugs, air, are all either a compound of carbon or its substituents. The Atomic number of carbon is 6, its Weight is 12 and is represented by its symbol C.

What are Carbon Compounds?

The compounds whose molecules contain a carbon atom is termed as a carbon compound. These compounds are generally organic in nature and are bonded to a carbon atom of another element. Carbon monoxide-CO, carbon dioxide-CO2, Benzene – C6H6, Methane-CH4 are examples of some carbon compounds.

Types of Carbon Compounds

There are two main types of Carbon Compounds.

Organic Compounds

Any chemical compound containing carbon and hydrogen is termed as the carbon compounds. It is the biggest class of carbon compounds. Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acid are the four major categories of organic compounds present in all living things.

Inorganic Carbon Compounds

Inorganic carbon compounds are very few compared to the organic compounds. They are mostly found in the minerals and other natural sources. Carbon monoxide, Hydrogen Cyanide, Carbon disulfide are few examples of inorganic carbon compounds.

Properties of Carbon Compounds

  • They have low melting and boiling points.
  • Carbon is soft and cloudy grey or black in color.
  • They are poor or non-conductors of the electricity.
  • Carbon has several allotropes, which include graphite and diamond.

Few Important Questions

  • What is combustion?
  • What is hydrogenation?
  • What are carboxylic acids?
  • List out the properties of Ethanol.
  • Why are carbon and its compounds used as fuels?

Learn more about Carbon and its Compounds from the topics given below:

Practise This Question

Which of the following is an example of man-made ecosystem?