NCERT Solutions For Class 11 Biology

Download Chapter wise NCERT Solutions For Class 11 Biology

NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology is one of the best learning guides a student can use for their exam preparation. It covers important questions with comprehensive answers. Furthermore, all solutions are presented in an easy-to-understand format.

Typically, you might just read a concept and try to memorize it. You might not even grasp the topic, and yet, you have to memorize it because it is a crucial part of your exam. This is where these solutions come into the picture – the prescribed answers are reconstituted into a language that is simple to understand and easy to remember. The content is designed by a team of highly qualified professionals that analyze the average mental competency of students in Class 11. This translates to content which is tailor-made for students, making it easy to gain a deeper insight into the subject.

Download class 11 NCERT solutions for biology to kick-start your exam preparations.

NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology

NCERT solutions class 11 Biology is a valuable resource not just from the point of class 11 examination, but also from the point of entrance exams like NEET, JEE, medical entrance exams, and various other competitive exams. Our experts at BYJU’S have created these solutions to help students to grasp maximum information with minimal mental strain.

It includes answers elaborated in a relatively simple language. The students can easily access topic wise class 11 biology NCERT solutions of every Chapter and unit covered in the biology textbooks. These solutions explain important concepts such as biological classification, animal and plant kingdoms, morphology, structural Organization, biomolecules, cell division, transport in plants, nutrition, photosynthesis, and more.  NCERT solutions Class 11 biology pdf is also provided with the study materials so that students can access content offline.

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Biology NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chapterwise

Chapter 1: The Living World

This chapter talks about What is ‘Living’? Diversity in the Living World, Taxonomic Categories, Taxonomical Aids. The living world is rich in variety. Millions of plants and animals have been identified and described but a large number still remains unknown. The taxonomic studies of various species of plants and animals are useful in agriculture, forestry, industry and in general for knowing our bio-resources and their diversity. Taxonomists have developed a variety of taxonomic aids to facilitate identification, naming and classification of organisms.

Chapter 2: Biological Classification

In this chapter, we will study characteristics of Kingdoms Monera, Protista and Fungi of the Whittaker system of classification. The Kingdoms Plantae and Animalia, commonly referred to as plant and animal kingdoms, respectively, will be dealt separately in Chapters 3 and 4. You will also study about Kingdom Monera, Kingdom Protista, Kingdom Fungi, Kingdom Plantae, Kingdom Animalia, Viruses, Viroids and Lichens.

Chapter 3: Plant Kingdom

In the previous chapter, we looked at the broad classification of living organisms under the system proposed by Whittaker (1969) wherein he suggested the Five Kingdom classification viz. Monera, Protista, Fungi,
Animalia and Plantae. In this chapter, we will deal in detail with further classification within Kingdom Plantae popularly known as the ‘plant kingdom’. Also, you will get to learn concepts such as Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms, Angiosperms, Plant Life Cycles and Alternation of Generations.

Chapter 4: Animal Kingdom

When you look around, you will observe different animals with different structures and forms. As over a million species of animals have been described till now, the need for classification becomes all the more important. The classification also helps in assigning a systematic position to newly described species. It also teaches you topics such as Basis of Classification, Classification of Animals.

Chapter 5: Morphology of Flowering Plants

In chapters 2 and 3, we talked about classification of plants based on morphological and other characteristics. For any successful attempt at classification and at understanding any higher plant (or for that matter any living organism) we need to know standard technical terms and standard definitions. We also need to know about the possible variations in different parts, found as adaptations of the plants to their environment, e.g., adaptions to various habitats, for protection, climbing, storage, etc. It also explains topics such as The Root, The Stem, The Leaf, The Inflorescence, The Flower, The Fruit, The Seed, Semi-technical Description of a Typical Flowering Plant, Description of Some Important Families.

Chapter 6: Anatomy of Flowering Plants

This chapter introduces you to the internal structure and functional organisation of higher plants. Study of internal structure of plants is called anatomy. Plants have cells as the basic unit, cells are organised into tissues and in turn, the tissues are organised into organs. Different organs in a plant show differences in their internal structure. Within angiosperms, the monocots and dicots are also seen to be anatomically different. Internal structures also show adaptations to diverse environments. It includes topics such as The Tissues, The Tissue System, Anatomy of Dicotyledonous and Monocotyledonous Plants, Secondary Growth.

Chapter 7: Structural Organisation in Animals

In the preceding chapters, you came across a large variety of organisms, both unicellular and multicellular, of the animal kingdom. In unicellular organisms, all functions like digestion, respiration and reproduction are performed by a single cell. In the complex body of multicellular animals, the same basic functions are carried out by different groups of cells in a well-organised manner. All complex animals consist of only four basic types of tissues. These tissues are organised in specific proportion and pattern to form an organ like stomach, lung, heart and

Chapter 8: Cell The Unit of Life

When you look around, you see both living and non-living things. You must have wondered and asked yourself – ‘what is it that makes an organism living, or what is it that an inanimate thing does not have which a living thing has’ ? The answer to this is the presence of the basic unit of life – the cell in all living organisms. All organisms are composed of cells. Some are composed of a single cell and are called unicellular organisms while others, like us, composed of many cells, are called multicellular organisms.

Chapter 9: Biomolecules

There is a wide diversity in living organisms in our biosphere.  Few other topics included in this chapter are How to Analyse Chemical Composition? Primary and Secondary Metabolites, Biomacromolecules, Proteins, Polysaccharides, Nucleic Acids, Structure of Proteins, Nature of Bond Linking Monomers in a Polymer, Dynamic State of Body Constituents – Concept of Metabolism, Metabolic Basis for Living, The Living State, Enzymes.

Chapter 10: Cell Cycle and Cell Division

Growth and reproduction are characteristics of cells, indeed of all living organisms. All cells reproduce by dividing into two, with each parental cell giving rise to two daughter cells each time they divide. These newly formed daughter cells can themselves grow and divide, giving rise to a new cell population that is formed by the growth and division of a single parental cell and its progeny. In other words, such cycles of growth and division allow a single cell to form a structure consisting of millions of cells. Other subtopics mentioned in chapter are Cell Cycle, M Phase, Significance of Mitosis, Meiosis, Significance of Meiosis.

Chapter 11: Transport in Plants

The chapter consists of topics such as Means of Transport, Plant-Water Relations, Long Distance Transport of Water, Transpiration, Uptake and Transport of Mineral Nutrients, Phloem, Transport: Flow from Source to Sink. Plants obtain a variety of inorganic elements (ions) and salts from their surroundings, especially from water and soil. In higher plants, there is a vascular system comprising of xylem and phloem, responsible for translocation. Phloem is responsible for transport of food (primarily) sucrose from the source to the sink. The translocation in phloem is explained by the pressure-flow hypothesis.

Chapter 12: Mineral Nutrition

This chapter focusses mainly on inorganic plant nutrition, wherein you will study the methods to identify elements essential to growth and development of plants and the criteria for establishing the essentiality. You will also study the role of the essential elements, their major deficiency symptoms and the mechanism of absorption of these essential elements. The chapter also introduces you briefly to the significance and the mechanism of biological nitrogen fixation.

Chapter 13: Photosynthesis in Higher Plants

All animals including human beings depend on plants for their food. The green plants make or rather synthesise the food they need through photosynthesis and are therefore called autotrophs. Green plants carry out ‘photosynthesis’, a physico-chemical process by which they use light energy to drive the synthesis of organic compounds. Photosynthesis is important due to two reasons: it is the primary source of all food on earth. It is also responsible for the release of oxygen into the atmosphere by green plants. This chapter focusses on the structure of the photosynthetic machinery and the various reactions that transform light energy into chemical energy.

Chapter 14: Respiration in Plants

This chapter deals with cellular respiration or the mechanism of breakdown of food materials within the cell to release energy, and the trapping of this energy for synthesis of ATP. It also explains topics such as Do Plants Breathe? Glycolysis, Fermentation, Aerobic Respiration, The Respiratory Balance Sheet, Amphibolic Pathway, Respiratory Quotient.

Chapter 15: Plant Growth and Development

You have already studied the organisation of a flowering plant in Chapter 5. In this chapter, you shall also study some of the factors which govern and control these developmental processes. These factors are both intrinsic (internal) and extrinsic (external) to the plant. Other subtopics are Growth Differentiation, Dedifferentiation and
Redifferentiation, Development, Plant Growth Regulators, Photoperiodism, Vernalisation.

Chapter 16: Digestion and Absorption

Food is one of the basic requirements of all living organisms. The major components of our food are carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Vitamins and minerals are also required in small quantities. Food provides energy and organic materials for growth and repair of tissues. The water we take in plays an important role in metabolic processes and also prevents dehydration of the body. Biomacromolecules in food cannot be utilised by our body in their original form. They have to be broken down and converted into simple substances in the digestive system. This process of conversion of complex food substances to simple absorbable forms is called digestion and is carried out by our digestive system by mechanical and biochemical methods.

Chapter 17: Breathing and Exchange of Gases

As you have read earlier, oxygen is utilised by the organisms to indirectly break down simple molecules like glucose, amino acids, fatty acids, etc., to derive energy to perform various activities. Carbon dioxide which is harmful is also released during the above catabolic reactions. It is, therefore, evident that oxygen has to be continuously provided to the cells and carbon dioxide produced by the cells have to be released out. This process of exchange of oxygen from the atmosphere with carbon dioxide produced by the cells is called breathing, commonly known as respiration.

Chapter 18: Body Fluids and Circulation

You have learnt that all living cells have to be provided with nutrients, oxygen and other essential substances. Also, the waste or harmful substances produced, have to be removed continuously for healthy functioning of tissues. Blood is the most commonly used body fluid by most of the higher organisms including humans for this purpose. Another body fluid, lymph, also helps in the transport of certain substances. In this chapter, you will learn about the composition and properties of blood and lymph (tissue fluid) and the mechanism of circulation of blood is also explained herein.

Chapter 19: Excretory Products and their Elimination

The chapter covers topics such as Human Excretory System, Urine Formation, Function of the Tubules, Mechanism of Concentration of the Filtrate, Regulation of Kidney Function, Micturition, Role of other Organs in Excretion, Disorders of the Excretory System.

Chapter 20: Locomotion and Movement

Movement is one of the significant features of living beings. Animals and plants exhibit a wide range of movements. Such voluntary movements are called locomotion. Walking, running, climbing, flying, swimming are all some forms of locomotory movements. Locomotory structures need not be different from those affecting other types of movements. Methods of locomotion performed by animals vary with their habitats and the demand of the situation. However, locomotion is generally for search of food, shelter, mate, suitable breeding grounds, favourable climatic conditions or to escape from enemies/predators.

Chapter 21: Neural Control and Coordination

Coordination is the process through which two or more organs interact and complement the functions of one another. In our body the neural system and the endocrine system jointly coordinate and integrate all the activities of the organs so that they function in a synchronised fashion. In this chapter, you will learn about the neural system of human, mechanisms of neural coordination like transmission of nerve impulse, impulse conduction across a synapse and the physiology of reflex action.

Chapter 22: Chemical Coordination and integration

You have already learnt that the neural system provides a point-to-point rapid coordination among organs. The neural coordination is fast but short-lived. As the nerve fibres do not innervate all cells of the body and the cellular functions need to be continuously regulated; a special kind of coordination and integration has to be provided. This function is carried out by hormones. The neural system and the endocrine system jointly coordinate and regulate the physiological functions in the body.

Access and download NCERT class 11 Books here.

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 1

Major concepts in Class 11 biology chapter 1 include:

  1. Introduction
  2. Growth
  3. Reproduction
  4. Metabolism
  5. Cellular Organism, Consciousness
  6. Biodiversity, Nomenclature, Identifier
  7. Classification & its need
  8. Taxa, taxonomy, Hierarchical
  9. Species, Genus, Family
  10. Order, class, phylum, div, kingdom
  11. Taxonomical Aids

Class 11 Biology NCERT Solutions Chapter 2

Essential concepts for class 11 biology chapter 2 are as follows:

  • Introduction
  • Linnaeus’ two kingdom classification
  • Whittaker’s five kingdom classification
  • Monera: Bacteria, Characteristics types
  • Archaebacteria
  • Eubacteria: Cyanobacteria
  • Heterotrophic Eubacteria, pathogens
  • Reproduction of bacteria
  • Protista: Characteristics
  • Chrysophytes
  • Dinoflagellates, red tides
  • Euglenoids, Slime molds
  • Protozoa: Amoeboid, flagellated
  • Fungi
    • Characteristics & Structure
    • Nutrition
    • Reproduction
  • Fungi Types
    • Phycomycetes, Ascomycetes
    • Basidiomycetes, Deuteromyctes
    • Some important fungi
  • Viruses: Characteristics, structure, viral disease, viroids

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 3 – Plant Kingdom

  • Brief Introduction of Characteristics & Examples
  • Classification System : Artificial & Natural
  • Phylogenetic classification system
  • Sub Classification of Plantae
  • Algae
    • Characteristics & Examples
    • Asexual & Sexual Reproduction
    • Significance, Subclassification
  • Chlorophyceae: Structure, life cycle
  • Phaeophyceae, Rhodophyta, Structure, life cycle
  • Bryophyta
    • Characteristics, Example, Structure
    • Reproduction, Life cycle, Sub-classification
  • Liverworts, structure, life cycle
  • Mosses: structure, life cycle, mosses vs. leafy liverworts
  • Pteridophyta
    • Characteristics, structure, and example
    • Life cycle, Ferns vs. Moss, Subclassification
  • Phanerogams
  • Gymnosperms: characteristics, example, structure, reproduction, life cycle, uses
  • Dicots & Monocots
  • Angiosperms: Flower structure, sexual reproduction
  • Quick Comparison
  • Plant life cycle, Haplontic, diplontic IX

Class 11 Biology NCERT Solutions Chapter 4 – Animal Kingdom

  • Introduction
  • Level of Organisation: Cellular, Tissue, Organ
  • Organ system level of Organization
  • Symmetry
  • Diploblastic & Triploblastic
  • Coelom: Acoelomates, coelomates
  • Segmentation
  • Notochord
  • Broad classification of Animalia
  • Porifera: structure, canal system, reproduction
  • Coelenterata
    • Structure, characteristics
    • Body forms, reproduction, Ctenophora
  • Platyhelminthes: characteristics, structure, reproduction
  • Nematoda
  • Annelida
  • Arthropoda
  • Mollusca
  • Echinodermata
  • Hemichordata
  • Chordata
    • Characteristics, Chordata vs. non-Chordata
    • Chordata: classification
  • Vertebrata
    • Characteristics, Example
    • Vertebrata classification
  • Agnatha: Cyclostomata, Gnathostomata
  • Pisces
    • Characteristics, examples, and classification
    • Chondrichthyes, Osteichthyes
  • Tetrapoda
    • Amphibians
    • Reptiles, aves
    • Mammalia

Academically, learning about these concepts might be overwhelming due to the sheer magnitude of information that is dumped on to you. However, with these carefully crafted study tips, the experience becomes more interesting and effective.

How to utilize Class 11 Biology NCERT Solutions for Board and Competitive exams?

Biology is a subject that tells us all about the natural world. Just like the other disciplines of science, it tries to explain the various phenomenon, events, or organisms with the help of observation, experimentation, and documentation. Here are a few tips you need to learn to study biology.


Diagrams are the prominent part of NCERT class 11 biology syllabus. In the exam, though, you will not have much time to draw neatly or clearly, and this, in turn, might prevent you from getting the marks you need to score well in the exam. Therefore, practice the relevant diagrams with some aspects such as shading and texturing beforehand. Doing this will make you stand out from your fellow students. Now, this might take some time to develop and get good at, but the reward is worth it.

Breaking down Information

The sheer magnitude of information might make it hard for you to remember everything. That’s why you need to develop a technique called information chunking, where the information is broken down into small chunks, and this makes it easier for the student to process the information. This is very effective because the cognitive load is reduced, and this, in turn, slows down mental fatigue. How you split the information is entirely dependant on you and your abilities.

Note Taking

Everyone already knows this, but not everyone implements it. This technique is underrated but incredibly helpful from an examination point of view. Whenever you are attending a lecture, make sure you note down the crucial points that the teacher says. This process stimulates your thinking, and you can recall information more easily. Furthermore, this is an essential tool to use when you revise for your exam. Since you prepare these notes, you will find it easier to comprehend and recall the information than any other textbook.

For more resources like important questions, mock tests, sample papers, you can register at BYJU’s or download our app. India’s largest k-12 learning app has the country’s best teachers. Find NCERT solutions, notes, question papers, and worksheets for various other subjects like Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry. We also provide resources to prepare for competitive exams as well.

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